Is the title of the thesis in introduced Managerial Engineering near the Polytechnic of Bari rewarded with the best note.
The Thesis in Italian language is available in format zip in the download area
Ch.mo Prof. Ing
Eugenio Di Sciascio
IT ARRANGES INFORMED TO YOU
The systems of support to the decisions and the economic development for the industrial districts:
VIRTUAL WAREHOUSE UNITEC
From more than a decade, the progressive and more and more fast globalization of the markets creates not little problems to the present enterprises in the Industrial Districts. This phenomenon has involved often the loss of consisting market shares, is acquired that to acquire potentially, than usually they were of „competence“ of the district enterprises.
The challenge of the total market introduces therefore great risks, but it can give great opportunities if opportunely lead.
In this job it is intentional to propose a managerial instrument that allows the district enterprises to pass from a passive role, than obligates them to endure the external choices, to a role for-assets, that it allows they to compete to equal crews with the external contenders.
This instrument is the Virtual Warehouse, than it is proposed to support some important decisions for the economic development of the District, that is supplyings and storing goodses.
The passage to a role for-assets, also through the adoption of the Virtual Warehouse, cannot but prescind from one vital choice for the District, that is Cooperation and Sharing , cooperation in the decisions and the strategies and sharing of physical and intellettive resources.
The innovations proposed in this job are mainly two and regard methodologies and live applied to you totally different, but become al same time complementary with the new computer science technologies:
the management of supplyings (Logistic and Management of the Industrial Production)
the systems of support to the informatizzati decisions (Systems Informed to you).
The regarding part the management of supplyings ahead places its bases in the studies capacities from various years from an enterprise of Logistics and services, the Unitec GmbH , and more just faces the problem of the redundancy of the goodses stored in the Industrial Districts.
In the Districts, for they constitution, is tantissime similar enterprises that carry out the same type of workings, use the same members, have in common many suppliers.
This door to having a high number of present warehouses to the inside of the District, that they have the same type of goods, in the shape, in the dimension, thickest in the supplier and in marks.
If, for hypothesis, all this goods came anytime grouped and made available and to whichever enterprise of the same District, it would be a much overabundant to the real necessities of supplying, constituting dismissable cost of remarkable dimension.
Unfortunately the companies of OF have a insufficient attitude to the collaboration for several reasons, that it would render the constitution of an only logistic platform of District impossible.
The Unitec GmbH has put to point the system of the Virtual Warehouse. Thanks to I use then of the Virtual Warehouse (from hour in MV), the goodses, and more specifically the supplyes than emergency, remain physically in the warehouses of the single enterprises, but they are, for the greater part, available in a MV (than he is not physically existing).
On this solution of Logistics one grafts the second proposed innovation, that is the use of the new Systems of Support to the Decisions that use, in indispensable way, the computer science technologies of base, and become fundamental instrument thanks to Sistemi Informed to you Is left over to you.
This innovation has one very precise scope, that is to supply sure, fast, methodologically valid means, in order to take decisions and in order to hold under iron control the warehouse activities, its costs, its inefficiencies. The output more immediate than these systems it is the production of report, that is of reports it is left over to you on the course of the warehouse, from all the points of view and second personalizes the demands to you for the High Direction, of the responsible of line, the engineer of production.
An advantage of fundamental importance is that these reports come supplied nearly in real time, with null costs, if not for the amortization of the insert of Informative Systems.
The means informed to us use you for this second proposal are database relational and the Datawarehouse.
Once puttinges in luminosity the advantages and the problems that are placed to the development of this plan, in order to proceed then to an analysis cost opportunity, it is passes you to the development of a database relational that served from support to the real warehouses and to the Virtual Warehouse, to the forecast of a system of extraction of give (ETL to you) from the aforesaid ones database, to the realization of a Datawarehouse it works them, that is a totally given over Datamart to the collection and coming from information processing from give you of the district warehouses and from the MV.
The methodologies continuations for the realization of the database relational follow the rules standard of normalization of Boyce and Codd, and the implementative rules of SQL Server 2000.
Same thing is always said for the realization of the DW, for which the methodologies suggested from Ralph Kim
Protagonists indiscusse of the Industrial Districts are the small and medium enterprises (PMI) that they have always given a strong contribution to the Italian economy.
OF, approximately 201 on all the national territory, they are characterizes you from the presence, in an area medium of 50Km2, numerous small and averages enterprises, with a dependent number that varies from little tens to some hundred.
The dependent number is of approximately 2.200.000, and constitutes 42% of the Italian manifacturing occupation.
They produce assets pertaining to the same goods type, the same productive family, and have one strongly interrelation, involuntary volunteer and; in the greater part of the cases, in the District an only type of product is produced and the several enterprises are engaged in one or little it is made of the production of the good.
In a generalized manner, it is possible to identify some common characteristics to the various ones OF, that they are dislocates to you indifferently on all the national territory, illustrated in the continuation.
The tipology of District Enterprise
Of continuation two „didactic“ classifications of the enterprises of the Districts are proposed.
One first classification has been carried out based on the positioning of the enterprises in the chain of the job, distinguishing between:
- enterprises finish them, are those that produce the end product and that they have approached on the markets of outlet (as an example, assemblage and is made accessory);
- contoterziste enterprises (monophase or plurifase), are those been involved in or more it is made as an example of the production (, in the production of divani, are those that tan the skin, or imbottiscono the pillows);
- fornitrici enterprises, operate in a various industry from that it identifies the end product, but belong to the same vertically integrated field of the enterprises finish them (to es. in a District of the apparel these coincide with the enterprises that produce buttons).
Then, based on the strategic behavior – competitive of the operating enterprises to the inside of the Districts, it is possible to characterize four tipology of enterprises:
enterprises leader , are enterprises that stop a dominanza position on the reference market and that they have developed to a set of competences that feeds a sostenibile competitive advantage in the comparisons of the contenders, premises and not;
enterprises follower , are enterprises that show oneself on the niche markets and that they introduce a substantial weakness in the innovation competences and planning of the product, which they make forehead above all adapting and imitating the products launch from the enterprises leader;
specialized enterprises , are enterprises that have developed specific competences in the productive area and that they are in a position to offering, thanks to the distintive competences that they develop, a valid contribution to the competitiveness of the enterprises leader and more in a generalized manner to all the enterprises of the District;
„blocked“ enterprises , are enterprises that they execute, on behalf of or more committenti, detailed lists workings and that they turn out in a position of contractual weakness and dependency in the comparisons of upgrade them customers, due not only to the structure of the offer (numerosity of the enterprises, insufficient differentiation of the product), but also to the lack of informative asymmetries with respect to the productivity of the systems, to the times and the costs of working.
The District Configurations
To the ends of the analysis carried out in the continuation of the thesis job, this paragraph assumes a fundamental importance, because from the configuration of the Districts it is possible to comprise the situation puts into effect them and to intuire in which way it can be obtained I throw again, and which type of system of support to the decisions adapted to ciascuna type.
Knowing the past it is only possible to comprise the future.
It’s possible to identify three configurations of Districts:
District with enterprise leader
District with entity goal-manager
In the first case the District is characterized like „integrated system“, in which there is the agglomeration of PMI highly specialized in a process or in more it makes itself than, and or more hub firms, that is companies that have one focale position to the inside of the induced one. The enterprises hub generally are of greater dimension and produce the end product that will exit from the same District; for this also they have developed a sure interaction with the outside and have directed final approached .
In according to case, leader is composed from various sub-suppliers of or more enterprises who has important dimensions (as an example Natuzzi followed from Calia and Nicoletti in the District of Altamura-MT). The enterprise leader who adopts the more important strategies of increase, and stretches to „internalizzare“ competences that before were of other smaller enterprises and that for competitive requirements it stretches to incorporate through acquisitions and important investments for the District.
Obvious is the interface between District and outside is held from the enterprise leader or however from enterprises in tightened contact with that guide.
In the last case taken in consideration, the configuration of the District is characterized from the formation of organizations, consortia, often promoted from public institutions, that they supply to follow the District supplying advising, in fields which certification ISO, training professional, development produced, and other services.
In many cases the consortium selects, buys the crude materials or the members for the district enterprises, try new customers; in this case of it is the metamanagement to make from interface with the outside.
The ORGANIZATION Of the PRODUCTION PROCESS
Once it identifies the roles to you of the enterprises in the district row and visualized the configurations of the main Italian Districts, the production process is necessary to comprise as structure, and as they turn out subdivided the several ones is made of the working of the product.
The efficiency of the production of the Districts is riconducibile in part to the elevated division of labor , which, thanks to the driven in net of Inter-organized relationships you, concurs with the single enterprises to maximize the use of the systems, to give place to economies of scale, to specialize the force job and to achieve therefore it elevates rendering to you from the same one.
The production processes come decomposed in more make that they temporarily turn out space and realizable in separate way.
As an example, in the case of a production of divani, there are groups of enterprises that are taken care of the skin, others of the chassis, others of the accessories, others of the padding. To the inside of the single ones it is made there are other sottofasi, carried out from other groups of enterprises, as an example some companies are taken care of the production of chassis in plastic, others in wood, other anchor take care of both the tipology. To the end one is had complex relation of competition and collaboration.
The competition is developed between equal enterprises, that is enterprises that work the same product and carry out the same activity.
This contributes to confer to the system a detached dynamism, in fact the enterprises are stimulated to search and to adopt the less expensive productive solutions, engaging generally in one modest but profitable activity of search of new solutions innovated to you.
The cooperation relationships turn out instead from the existing complementarità between units that situate to various levels of the productive cycle (committenti enterprises and sub – fornitrici). The positive effects you of the relationships of estrinsecano cooperation in many directions.
In the first place the cooperation allows the enterprises to enjoy the connected external economies to the total dimension of the District. But above all it assures an effective activity of coordination, that the aliquot character of the process is extremely important data.
Moreover the Districts, in virtue of the division of the production between more independent subjects, are in a position to quickly adapting the offer, on the quantitative and qualitative plan, to the which-quantitative variations of the final question. The adaptability is in particular the result of two property of the district productive structure: the elasticity (variation of the production volume) and the flexibility (variation of mix the productive one).
The Three Points Hinge
Reassuming and focusing, OF they have three winning characteristics of fundamental importance.
The first one is the flexible specialization that has marked the passage from the enterprise of great dimensions of fordista type, based on the standardization of the processes and the products, to the subdivision of the job between small enterprises closely interdependent and concentrated in a defined area.
This model has been in a position to facing the complexity and the turbulence acclimatizes them. It has allowed to obtain strong economies of scale, like for the great enterprises, and strongly ability to adaptation (meant like variation of volume and mix) like the small enterprises, even if within it determines limits to you.
The second evidence is that one of the industrial atmosphere , that it represents a complex with of social and economic relations of informal nature, meets favorites from the small business dimension (more info and little bureaucracy) and from the vicinity of the job centers (more direct and personal contacts); that has contributed also to hold bottoms the prices of the costs of transaction, that is the passages of assets and acquaintances from a interdistrettuale company to an other. With the increase of the district dimensions the necessity to increase to the intensity and the number of the relations has been that one that more has contributed to the introduction of the comunicative and informative innovations of the ICT.
Finally the learning processes , than are distinguished in acquaintance of external origin, deriving from a continuous interaction of the district truth with the external atmosphere, and acquaintance of inner origin, fruit of the genetic patrimony of the District.
Before it can be identified fundamentalally with with of the acquired technological acquaintances through the graft of products and services, usually activity not Core, that is not closely connected with the business business.
To the second one, instead, the acquaintances of „operating-esperienziale“ nature belong, fruit of the historical memory of the production processes and the interaction between the various district units.
Such ability has revealed the more important source than economic vital of at least until when the competitive context in which they they have operated has been tendentially static and the adaptive learning, characterized from a behavior of type „stimulus-answer“ and based on an improvement process they of the products, the services, the technologies and the actions of marketing increases.
The improvement of the performances demanded from the process of internationalization to forehead of an increasing competitiveness passes from an taken care of analysis and management of with of acquaintances and above all from one answer not more consequence of the stimulus, but of one forecast.
THE INDUSTRIAL FIELD
It seems that the formation of the industrial Districts has interested mostly some fields productive rather than others, and in particular those fields in which:
sufficiently the requirementses of understood them fixed are limited, that is the investments in systems and equipments are reduced;
the economies of scale are more insufficient to level of entire production process while they can be come true to level of single phase;
the automation of the production process is insufficient, draft in fact of productions in which she is strongly the handicraft and manual member;
the distributed quota direct job in the production process is elevated, is that is productions that demand intense requirementses of human labor, so-called labour intensive;
the innovation and the technical progress closely are tied to a process of learning by doing, be a matter itself of „mature“ technologies of process.
In the specific one, the typical products apparel, footwear realize to you in the Italian Districts are the durable consumer goodses for the person (, glance at them, etc.) and the raw materials relative ones (you weave them, leather, skins); the assets for the house (furnitures, ceramics, glasses); it blots of it that serves to produce the uni and the other assets. Draft of traditional so-called productions to mature technology, characterized from an elevated stilistico content and strongly subject to the factor fashion.
From the points over it lists to you would seem it are not to us great space for complex investments, or however to high average cost; like described in the first point, the investments are reduced. Consequently, investments of informatizations, automation and process control possible single in would be determined conditions.
In the Districts with enterprise leader, this last one has the ability ability financial institution of a great company, and could support an important investment; same it has remarkable infuence and decisional, directed and indirect power, in the comparisons of the other enterprises of the District.
In the Districts with metamanagement they would be perhaps possible participations of restructure of the District, perhaps but it would involve long times, above all if the consortium is public.
A last solution, possible in all and the three configurations that have been shown previously, is that one of the interest, or however of the involvement, private companies with sufficient experience and dimensions adapted, that they enter to tightened contact with of and that they make from catalyst and propulsive motor for the introduction of the just innovations.
The case that will come illustrated in the continuation of the job, that is the Unitec enterprise, the instrument of the Virtual Warehouse and System of Support to the decisions.
The INTERNATIONALIZATION Of the MARKETS: THE THREAT
The competitiveness of the District, like demonstrated from numerous real cases, today seems to depend strongly on its ability to internationalize itself.
In fact, from the first Years the Ninety international markets are living a continuous expansion and superimposition, provoking one the strongest competition between all the enterprises, to prescind from their geographic localization.
In past, the Italian enterprises, and in particular the enterprises placed in, have had meant happened to you in the penetration of the foreign markets.
The increase of the exports of in the light or traditional fields, to prescind from the conjunctural crisis puts into effect them, testifies with the competitive vital of the enterprises and their ability to move on the international markets.
However, today, internationalization and exports are not more synonymous.
The way with which the enterprise it maintains in the generation of the competitive advantages you international does not coincide alone with the export.
On one side to export not enough more: the enterprise must be engaged to the foreign country in more complex shapes of the simple commercialization of the finished product.
From the other side, to export can be not meaningful or essential in order not to acquire an international status, world class, in the transnational competition in all those cases in which the exports they are not enough to intercept the competitive advantages you that they are generated in the various world-wide areas.
Enterprises that export little can that is have international a competitive standard, while enterprises that export a lot can not have it.
In their traditional meaning they were shaped like local chain of supply, sluices to external contributions in are made to mount, and strongly internationalized in is made finishes them, of sale and attendance to the customers. Up to now, they have been the finished products to go, through the endowed enterprises of nets trades them international, on the external markets.
The relative workings to mount and competences instead are sedimentate locally, feeding the competitiveness of the producers to go them.
It was dealt, in poor words of a model export oriented: a model that today risks to find itself in the eye of the cyclone, if it is not adapted to the new shapes of transnational production of the value.
FROM MARKET CAPTIVE TO THAT WORLD-WIDE ONE
If the relative advantages are wanted to be achieved you to it differentiates them national and to the international division of the cognitive job it is necessary that the district enterprises of subfornitura, that they operate to mount, begin to watch to markets more extensive than those guaranteed from their local committenti, and that the committenti, that they operate to goes them, widen the horizon of the exports for articulating the international presence in pregnante way.
In other words, it is necessary that OF, in how much it arranges action collectives, act same they like actors of the international economy in formation.
On that it depends, in great part, the possibility of the models of happening Italian to survive to the new rules of the international competition.
Just of forehead to the case of the district enterprise, the new way to see the internationalization clears that the speech goes lead to two levels: on one side its internationalization is necessary to see total dynamics of the District (as it arranges, through the various rings of the chain of the value that compose it); from the other it is necessary to see the position of the single enterprises.
Traditionally the district enterprises act on a market captive (the district home market) and leave little specialistic enterprises the commercialization of the product and the decisions of marketing (design and planning of the product, segmentations of the market, wraps of price-quality).
The District as total chain can therefore be internationalized from the point of view of the export and can pour the value generated from the expansion of the final market on the subfornitori and inner suppliers.
But the degree of internationalization of the enterprises that operate on the inner market captive rather is limited and that constitutes one of the reasons of bottom of the weakness of the chain.
Of forehead to the competitive pressures, even if he is good – in some cases – the summer of the final market, elements strongly evolution invest make to mount of the chain and the captive markets that have up to now assured the sistemica cohesion of the District.
The position of the district enterprise, regarding the arrange-District, is particularly important in the moment in which it changes the inner division of the job in the District because some enterprises open to the external relations and international market, avoid the previous relationships of inner complementarità.
The previous organization risks therefore to being unpage, under the pressure of various evolutionary factors, between which the accelerated internationalization more than some „rings“ of the district chain.
The unsolved issue of that peculiar type of division of labor comes in this way to the comb on local bases that has been come true in Italy in the District, in competition with the great ford man enterprise but also, for some aspects to imitation of the prevailing models of fordista production (vertical integration of the activities).
In the Districts, the vertical integration is not owner, but driven in net of division of labor is come true through one, on the local market, promoted and regulated from mechanisms of cohesion and social exchange instead that from mechanisms autoritati to you.
The District therefore has achieved the greater part of the obtainable advantages from the vertical integration (in native place) of the activities, is pure with some disadvantage which had to the difficulty to program the chain of the local supply, with to the advantages of the flexibility, the variety, the variety of put entrepreneurial intelligences to the job.
But it has conserved also the disadvantages of the integrated model, than it more searches possible the extended market for the finished products, while „internalizza“ (in native place) makes and the services to mount.
This is made and services that they are born from the local question cannot however be to along confine to you in this role captive regarding the requirements of the local committenti and become instead, to a sure point, rings „weak people“ of the chain, as the strategies of the committenti to go head them at other localizations and, probably, other sources of supply (own branchs (office) that car-produce members and blot of it to the foreign country or new suppliers, often „raise to you“ in the localize countries.
The gap of the district enterprises
Gap main that the district model extension regarding the new markets:
- The PMI do not possess the same force of the enterprises of greater dimension, do not possess the same amounts and qualities of information , do not have the means availability of the great enterprise, of it do not have the same contractual power. In practical they cannot take advantage of of the same competitive advantages you.
- Some factors that turned out winning in the domestic market cannot be use you directly on the foreign markets; one for all the localization factor. This last one in fact has been a favorable condition in order to make to grow the activity of the small enterprise, assuring a low cost of the job, the availability of specific information, acquaintances and skills, and a feeling of belongings to a immenser and homogenous associate-entrepreneurial system, that is the District. Localization strongly turns out weakened from the greater possibility of information and communication that the instruments of the ICT offer.
- Moreover, the deficiency of adequate infrastructures and the limited ability to the community and the institutions to accompany gradatamente these phenomena of development are an ulterior handicap of the district enterprises respect to other business truths.
The HYPOTHESIS Of the COLLABORATION And the SHARING IN ORDER TO EXCEED the GAP
There are at least two you live of internationalization a lot promising that they must be explores to export:
- the transnational distribution of the various activities that compose puts into effect it them chain of the value (several is made of the cycle, services), so as to to be able to take advantage of just advantage it differentiates them national specific of the various countries.
- The active international net participation of division of labor in the field of the production and use of the acquaintance.
In the first case the enterprises have a decisive advantage if they select national atmospheres in function of the characteristic different of cost and productivity.
Given to the differences between countries, considering also the countries newcomers to low cost of the job, the maximum value of all production chain will be obtained distributing the activities so as to to take advantage of the relative advantages you of every country in detailed lists it is made of the chain.
The optimization of the transnational chain came once made from the multinationals through the directly controlled and scattered branchs (office) all over the world.
Today it can be made from all the enterprises, also small, through the development of nets of international collaboration or services.
In according to case, the enterprises instead acquire a decisive advantage because they become able to use the accessible acquaintances and the „specialismi“ in world-wide scale, that produrle in just, or a near atmosphere, to high cost and risk.
The possibility to enter to make part of a net of the sort allows the enterprise to specialize itself in a specific, value knowledge in world-wide scale, and to count for all the rest on the supply of technologies, competences and workings from other enterprises with which a confidence relationship has been established.
- One Priority Necessity: To pull down the Costs
- The Enterprise-Net: SHARING OF ASSETS AND INFORMATION REMAINING OWNERS
- The Advantages of the Virtual Warehouse
One Priority Necessity: To pull down the Costs
In this job of thesis it is intentional to introduce a managerial instrument that could turn out of remarkable importance if applied to the inside of an Industrial District.
This instrument is born from two real requirements:
- the necessity to diminish the weight of the supplyes, in order to recover liquidity
- the need to mainly diminish the supplyes of the materials and members of maintenance for the systems and the equipments of the present enterprises in the district comprensorio.
The requirement to act on the cut of the operating costs of the supplyes rather than on a production increase, and still more on the costs than supplying is of simple and linear logic
In the industrial field, the logistic costs are of the same order of magnitude of the Direct labor for the assets of low unitary value (that is for nearly the totality of the assets produced in the Districts). As an example they are comprised between 5% and 20% in the food industry, between 10% and 12% in the mechanical industry. Regarding the immobilized understood one them, the cost of the warehouse is gone around around annual 30%.
Therefore the logistic costs contribute in meaningful way to the determination of the all in cost of numerous assets.
These understood immobilize them to you are unproductive, because they do not generate wealth, but indeed forgiveness value for effect of the phenomena inflatti to you; they cannot be use you for other asset that produces value; often they constitute a virtual limit to new productive investments; if those understood them were available they would avoid part of the indebtedness near thirds party.
The dismissable cost from management expenses is remarkable. The lacked gain decidedly is elevated.
It is supposed, as an example, of having an enterprise with structure of the costs:
3% the profit (in red),
37% the operating costs (outlined),
and 60% the MP costs and componentistica-(in white man).
If this enterprise wanted to only increase of 2% the just useful one increasing the production, in the hypotheses to maintain the structure of the costs (fixed invariata), without to hold account of the widening of the systems, it would have to increase its costs (only variable) of 67%.(Nota2) Making in fact one simple proportion,:
3%: 5% = 37%: x x (new operating costs) = 37 * 5/3 = 62%
3%: 5% = 60%: y y (new costs for MP and comp.) = 60 * 5/3 = 100%
That is, if before our hypothetical enterprise spold 98 in order to earn 2, hour spends 162 in order to earn 5, that is an increase of the costs of 67%, that is an increase of the assumed market, but for null realistic, of 60%.
To the costs of raw materials and members, new would have to be carried out new investments, to be increased the indebtedness, to be increased assumptions, elevated labor cost, and therefore via.
The answer, therefore, seems to be one single, that is to act on the operating costs; in fact a cut of 2% on the management and supplying costs in a generalized manner, transform nearly integrally in an increase of the unearned income.
It must find the way more opportune in order to pull down these costs. The proposals can be varied, which as an example a shared logistic platform to district level, in order to pull down the operating costs of the warehouse or, like will be looked at more ahead, the Warehouse Virtual, useful in order to obtain a discouragement of the emergency supplyes.
All these solutions have like common point the cooperation between the enterprises of the District.
Is evident this second solution is from preferring by far to that one of the increase of the turnover. And it is what one resolves to do to make the instrument used in this job.
The second one chosen carried out is that one to act on a particular type supply, that is that one of the materials and members of maintenance of the systems and the equipments.
In a manifacturing enterprise three types of warehouses exist:
- Warehouse Raw materials and semifinished ones (in entrance)
- Warehouse Finished product (in escape)
- Warehouse material and members of maintenance
For the district enterprises, of medium-small dimensions, it is much difficult one to act on the supplyes of first type, in how much a lot tied to the committenza and its requirements.
On the supplyes of second type they exist already of the hypotheses of interdistrettuale collaboration.
The supplyes of third type are anch‘ they of difficult forecast, in how much it is much difficult one to know when a hammer will be broken off, when the tip of a bottoming drill is broken off, or when they will be unusable the blades of cutter.
There are various theories statistics who take care themselves of this problem.
The breakdowns of not accidental nature, manifest as a result of phenomena of irreversible degradation whose entity depends on the operating time of the member. This is the case of mechanical members subject to usury, hard work and corrosion or to one combination of such phenomena. In these cases functions of probability of famous type (mainly Weibull are used).
The breakdowns of accidental nature have constant failure rate in the time, and negative esponenziale distribution.
The problem but rises if the enterprise that carries out this analysis is one small or medium enterprise, that it has the necessity to determine the proportions its supplyes of maintenance.
An analysis on the breach of the maintenance materials is not feasible in a district enterprise, of small medium type, because it does not have the great volumes of give to you necessary for these analyses, than consequently turns out impossible or not convenient economically. Moreover it must have also of the staff adapted in order to make this type of forecast, and in enterprises of the smallest type to times of approximately 10-15 persons it is at least improbable that there is someone that has the sufficient competences in order to make them.
The necessity is that one to maintain possible the volume smaller of the supplyes of maintenance materials, without never to go under supply for long periods.
If, as an example, the electric motor were broken off of cutter of medium dimensions, it is somewhat improbable that there is a motor of reservoir; if that it cutter it was a neck of bottle (bottle neck) of the production, encounter to the detention could be gone systems for all the period of supply more that one than installation and test.
Not having the possibility to make forecasts, it must act in other way.
The Enterprise-Net: SHARING OF ASSETS AND INFORMATION REMAINING OWNERS
Resuming some concepts expressed in the part dedicated to the organization of the production process in the District, it must remember like in nearly all is made of production of a good or of a family of products, a myriad of enterprises that are taken care of that phase, and to the same way practically always exists (as it will be looked at in the next one understood it, the passage nearly automatic rifle of information on the production and on the productive methods it is one of the characteristics winning of OF).
This wants to say that it is highly realistic that the laborer of the enterprise To, will use the same type of equipment, if not just the same one, of enterprise B, C, and, J, K and therefore via.
Account of being is made an enterprise of the District of the fill up piece of supplies.
The production of fill up supplies is organized in three is made distinguished very that they can be carried out in parallel:
- the preparation of stalks, realized from the inner or external units of carpenter’s shop to the enterprise;
- the model of the polyurethane, realized, inner or externally, is manually (on tables semifurnish) is in automated way through systems automates Cad – Cam to you;
- the cut of the coverings (skins or woven) and of the linings.
Only for the workings that regard exclusively the preparation of the stalks in the district comprensorio is 22 enterprises, on a total of approximately 300 recognized enterprises (1999)
Gravina of Puglia 6
Some types of Fusti AAA stalks are of wrap to high quality and need of a particular type of working, with specific machinery, than as an example they will call TagliaFustiAAA.
The 22 companies do not have all how many availabilities in reciprocation, data the elevated cost of the members of the machinery.
Two scenes in breach case can be verified:
- the SoloFusti enterprise does not have to warehouse the member of UtensileDeluxe reciprocation of the TagliaFusti AAA machinery and must attend of the supply; if it goes well, the delivery re-enters in lead the medium Time of the supplier, otherwise goodness knows how much will have to be attended and for how much time the production of FustiAAA will have to be postponed;
- The SoloFusti enterprise has to UtensileDeluxe warehouse; it has however immobilized a part consisting of the understood one them that he would have been usable for other investments or in order to cover the indebtedness.
If for absurdity they put with all the UtensileDeluxe, present in the district area, they would guarantee one by far advanced availability to the requirementses of substitution of the production lines of all and the 22 enterprises of the District.
Calling with Me (= 1..n) the part of the supplyes that every company puts in common, that is to disposition of the MV, one will be had virtual ability (to emergency) interdistrettuali pars to MD.
Just this the idea of the Virtual Warehouse.
Only that, instead that to put in common the corporal good in a cetralized warehouse, the information of same in the system of the Virtual Warehouse and the possibility of access is put to disposition to that of it they had temporary need.
The companies participants transmit to the manager of the Virtual Warehouse the information of the contents of the business warehouse that wish to share in the District, in its turn the manager generate a Virtual Warehouse that contains the descriptions of the materials, the amount available and the times of supplying.
In this way the enterprises can consequently reorganize the own supplyes in function of the availability of the Virtual Warehouse and the operating necessities.
The UtensileDeluxe comes maintained in the Warehouse of the Owner; it continues to decide of the good to its like. In case the UtensileDeluxe in function had to go in damage, he could replace it immediately.
In the same way, if an other producer must have need to replace the UtensileDeluxe to the unexpected one, it could put itself in contact with the Virtual Warehouse, that he knows which are the availabilities in the district area, and on condition choose that one more convenient, behind suggestion of MV the same one.
The UtensileDeluxe would come immediately put to disposition of who of it has need, and the MV supply to reintegrate of the good in the warehouse that has lend it following the times of an ordinary resupply.
Source Unitec 2002
Moreover, the warehouse that yields the good would come just indennizzato for that „loan“, and the Manager of the Virtual Warehouse would have straight to a compensation for the rendered service.
It must that it is very clearly that it is possible to construct a system of the sort only if availability to the collaboration and the sharing of the information and the assets is had.
Moreover, given the elevated number of present companies in the District, base can be applied to a principle used in the planning of the complex systems: the principle of not the temporary of the events, that is can be excluded statistically that the same member goes in damage in the same moment in two different areas of the system.
If the UtensileDeluxe goes in damage in the SoloFusti enterprise, is impossible that other enterprise of the same comprensorio goes in damage in whichever.
A daily example of the principle of the supply is not the spare wheel, possesses some even if our motor vehicle uses four, but the possibility is excluded to pierce more wheels at the same time.
In a generalized manner it would be possible to define two „extreme“ profiles customer of the MV, than they are found to the opposite ones:
utilizzatore of the service and enough; that is all the supplyes come managed from the MV, and therefore the MV become outsourcer of supplyings, taking to cargo also the ordinary supplyes. In practical the satisfied customer goodses and services of resupply, but eliminate the costs of supplying and warehouse
supplier of assets for the MV, that is places like its main activity that one „lend“ assets to the MV and therefore to the other district enterprises, gaining of profit
And then there is using type that will use of the MV in order to take assets when of it it has need and lend the goods when it has some in overabundance.
The Advantages of the Virtual Warehouse
The advantages of the Virtual Warehouse are mainly four, which if they can some then add other accessories:
- increase of the liquidity financial institution
- lessening of the warehouse costs
- possibility of forts you discount on the acquired goodses
- better management of supplyings
- increase of the availability
The stored goods is immobilized understanding them; reducing the own supplyes in function of the presence of the same goodses in the Virtual Warehouse one obtains an increase of liquidity, and this door to the possibility of new investments, without to resort to the indebtedness. When an enterprise decides to join to the MV, the first advantage that it has some is that one of being able to diminish the supplyes of 20% approximately, eliminating the Supplyes of Emergency. Later on, with a greater control of the supplyes, it will be possible to proceed to ulterior reductions.
Moreover the same costs of storing (energetic rent local, costs, emergency, MdO) can be curtail to you if the reduction of the supplyes is meaningful.
The possibility to group a high number therefore of purchasers in a species of trust, creates the possibility of dealing with the suppliers with greater power of dealing. Consequently it is possible to define to advantage of the trust conditions which price, amount, times, quality of the supply, than to the buying small they were not allowed. It would be had, in other words, that one that calls the buyer aggregation.
To know the amounts and the necessities of warehouse in real time (DBMS), and in the course of the months and years (DSS), to know lead Time of supplying of the supplies, allows to manage in more effective and efficient way the warehouse.
Much difficult one to preview the fluctuations of the values of stock for small independent warehouses, that is those of the single enterprises, but is relatively easier to have the control on the course of the district warehouse, since it would be had to that to make with decidedly greater numbers.
If to this analysis of the historical series) of the Virtual Warehouse had to be added to a precise and punctual control on the historical course (, function also of the goods type would have a remarkable discouragement of the emergency supplyes ().
Finally, it must hold account of the fact that would be had to disposition, for the customer of the Virtual Warehouse, a remarkable increase of the availability and of the possibility of chosen of materials that otherwise would be much difficult one to have in warehouse normally.
If as an example a particular type of store clerk had to be verified, than never it had not been preventivata, and that it has need of a special equipment, there would be an elevated probability that it is instead reperibile in the district comprensorio through the MV. Perhaps its owner has made available it because he uses it very rarely, and therefore hopes to gain some of the profit rendering it available for other companies.
All this mechanism of rationalization but, cannot ahead be carried to compartments ponds, but holding account of the sinergic effect of a total restructure, also it graduates them, but total of the district structure and to put hand to the business processes (Business Process Reengineering).
Advantages accessories to participating to a Virtual Warehouse are:
- to eliminate the overhead managerial;
- to diminish the structure costs;
- to safeguard the atmosphere reducing the traffic generated from transports of along distance.
The adoption of the Virtual Warehouse, therefore, would allow to reduce managerial expenses (overhead managerial). In fact, often account of the time that comes lost practically in the search of the material, in its choice, its purchase, in its resupply is not kept. Without to speak about the ulterior time that comes lost when also in a single one of this it is made „administrative“ they come to create of the difficulties. Often it must recommence all the process daccapo. To these died times, if of it they add other anchor, because they do not come takes advantage of the modern means to you that the technology puts to disposition.
These times „of office“ are not free, but they come profumatamente pays to you „indirectly“, because who takes care itself of these bureaucratic passages cannot be operating and to dedicate to tasks more high added value.
If these problems came resolved, even with the passage of the supplies to an only one outsourcer of supplyings, that it raises the acts to you from the bureaucratic relationships with the suppliers, an immediate improvement of the supplies would be had, for times and quality, but also of cost because all it is made of „passive“ supplying they would come eliminated.
Important to emphasize as through the Virtual Warehouse the result chased more tenaciously from the political of Inventory Management is caught up also, that is the reduction of the investments in the warehouse without to compromise to the availability of the supplyes and therefore without to risk to lose upgrades them orders.
In the following figure it comes graphically represented the minimal amount of raw materials (expressed in value) that the traditional criteria of the Inventory Management must be present in a warehouse managed second, under which it is not possible to come down without to compromise the productive continuity.
T hat means that, diminishing the amount of supplyes under the „indicated minimum cost“ in the diagram, it would be possible to obtain of the savings, to discapito, but, of crescents costs had to the loss of upgrades them sales. Reducing excessive the supplyes, of other song, the enterprise would diminish its ability to produce to the amount and the quality of the goods demanded from the market (optimal service).
In the diagram the curves of the operating costs of the warehouse are represented (stockholding costs), that it turns out increasing to increasing of the availabilities of supplyes, and the curve of the costs deriving from upgrades them loss of orders (potential lost sales costs), which has an opposite course regarding the previous curve. The optimal choice will be determined from the minimal point of the curve of the cost total (in red), determined from the sum of the costs of the others two.
The adoption of the Virtual Warehouse modification radically the hardly illustrated outline.
Being the availability of the raw materials constantly assured in every moment from the outsourcer of service, the costs of upgrade them lacked sales, subiranno a sure lessening, than it will be translate in a crushing of the relative curve.
At the same time the curve of the warehouse costs stretches to lower itself, in consequence of the fact that the amount of matters to store diminishes considerably, just because is not more necessary that the single enterprise of the District physically stops all the types of matters necessary to guarantee the productive continuity.
The combination of the movements of the two curves involves the modification of the position of the curve of the cost total that will be lowered and it will be moved towards right.
- As She is changing the Management of the Acquaintance in the Industrial Districts
- The UNFAVORABLE FACTORS To The NEW MANAGEMENT Of the ACQUAINTANCE
The Virtual Warehouse today is realizable thanks to the net technologies, its application is possible ovunque and represents an other step towards the new economy.
The base of the operation of the Virtual Warehouse is represented from one platform software. The outsourcer it uses systems opened multiplatform, it is worth to say in a position to interscambiare give to you with other systems via Internet, Intranet or Extranet; that it allows it to have to dispositions information in real time from all the District, but also of continuously interface with the enterprises interested.
These thanks to the co-ordinate and total management of the outsoucer external, cosi we will have optimized the supplyes and reduced the costs of purchases and supplyings by means of the access to Systems Informed to you interaziendali that, above all for the PMI, can represent an important resource in order to increase the competitiveness in the market.
Systems Informed to you interdistrettuali must have, conserve and take advantage of the Management of the Acquaintance who until today has been the point of force of OF.
In this understood it, it has been tried to analyze the Management of an Acquaintance, therefore like is to the state puts into effect them, and it has been tried to indicate the road for one new.
The analysis of feasibility of the MV cannot therefore prescind from the situation puts into effect them, in the several one OF.
THE ACQUAINTANCE EXCHANGED IN THE DISTRICTS
Particularly important is the role played from the district enterprises in the development of the processes of creation of the acquaintances; it is on this field that the choices of the development of the Decision Support System will be developed, holding account of as the enterprises they exchange acquaintance and therefore give and information to you.
These processes can be led back to two main classes of learning:
- learning characterizes them, relative to the dimension of the single enterprise
- relational learning, afferent to relational dynamics of the district enterprises
To the first class they belong:
- Mechanisms trial & error (learning by doing, learning by using);
- Mechanisms of social speaking (learning by socializing); they are base to you on the interactions face-to-face between the individuals in the same organizational context with an exchange of technical-operating experiences and „visions of the world“
- Mechanisms for the elevated specialization (learning by specializing); through the repetition in the time of practical technical-productive they are succeeded to obtain focused competences.
To the second class of learning the relations established from the single district enterprises belong in particular and:
- Relations interimpresa; they are born for the decomposition of the production process between the single enterprises, than they are taken care of the various ones is made operating. The specialization on the single ones is made implies one complementariness of different specialistiche competences that door the enterprises to an intense collaboration in order to realize a efficient coordination and integration
- Relations with the social system; the industrial District usually has a reduced geographic extension; the elevated vicinity and the strait and natural exchange of information between workers, that they have interpersonal relationships beyond the job, render the exchange simpler than acquaintances for informal way
- Relations with the external atmosphere to the District;
As She is changing the Management of the Acquaintance in the Industrial Districts
The industrial Districts, but, are evolvendo, and the changes are introduced under various shapes, also that one of the exchange of the acquaintance; the passage of the knowledge cannot more being entrusted to the single accidental, natural and spontaneous behaviors, as it still happened and it happens in the Districts, mainly in those of traditional type.
This new management of the acquaintance, necessary in order to face the internationalization, accompanies to the re-modernization of old cognitive processes you how much the same Districts, and that of it they have constituted the main base for their happened one.
In particular, fundamental „the practical“ acquaintances constitute the substrate for learning by doing and the learning by using that, she arranges with the processes of socialization between the entrepreneurial subjects insides to you to the District, has generated an innovative ability diffused until the context of action of the enterprises has been static, to the type „stimulus-answer“.
With of the practical acquaintances, introducing itself fundamentalally as sum of acquaintances characterizes founded them on a know-how not codified , it is developed in operating within, and it influences the operating modalities and abilities.
It achieves some that the practical acquaintances assume for OF a strategic importance for upgrading the business performances and therefore the improvement of the performances had to the process of internationalization to forehead of an increasing competitiveness, passes from an taken care of analysis and management of the acquaintance that they give tacit and implicit must esplicitarsi and be codified.
More specifically it is necessary to observe that in the last years they are increases to you:
the importance of the factors not of price , which the quality, the emergency, the ergonomics and the style
the necessity to anticipate the question strategically because of the elevated dinamicità of the international markets
Therefore in the more dynamic Districts, in concomitanza to a restructure of the network of enterprises, one has been manifested tendency to put into effect a process control innovated to you. In particular, more careful management of the technical-productive acquaintances is found one and trades them to the aim to put into effect political of penetration and consolidation in the markets, through the offer of mix of products and changing services and of elevated quality, than you meet the question upgrades them of the markets.
In the first case of change (cfr.vedi understood them previous), in which the District it is entrusted to the external enterprises for the distribution on the international markets, they are of fundamental importance, for the activation of the inner mechanisms of learning to the district area, the flows informed you relati you to the characteristics of the markets that give the outside must be moved towards the inside of the District (feedback of orders, marketing, personalization of the products). The business strategies them and productive they must be based on the ability to acquire and to select the exogenous information and acquaintances to the District and subsequently to compare them and to integrate them with those endogenous ones.
In according to case all assume great importance those processes of management of the acquaintance turn to facilitate the transfer of the productive acquaintances from the district context, in which they have been developed, towards the new areas of takeover; moreover it must be in a position to traslare the just ruotines of learning towards the new context.
The POSSIBLE EVOLUTION: THE NEW MANAGEMENT OF THE ACQUAINTANCE
The breach of the international chain based on the inner relations to the District determines one situation unbalanced for the various categories of present enterprises: the enterprises that have acquired an independent ability to relation with the outside can be useful for the situation in order to set up a various division of labor, that it uses resources and external competences placed in competition with the traditional suppliers or district purchasers.
The enterprises that instead do not have acquired an independent ability to relation with the outside find to lose traditional suppliers and outlets, or they are found to compete with external contenders more forts, than accessible thanks to the specificity of the competences and supplies to the inside of the District cannot more be excluded from the market.
It is found to us therefore of forehead, in this moment, to a gap between enterprises and a conflict of interest that can seriously minare the cooperation base that has resisted up to now.
Draft however of a covered normal school evolutionary, marked from crises that can be to foriere of new organizational shapes. The District, like complex formation, must in part decomporsi for being able to reconstruct its chains of the value and its outlines of division of labor.
There are various possibilities evolutionarily to exit from one situation of ungluing of the synchrony and inner coherence:
- the development of functions of leadership from part of enterprises capofila that „they ferry“ also enterprises associated towards outlines that, meanwhile tighten the inner ties between a selected group of partners, preview one expansion of the relations of District towards the new outside and back enterprises of external origin;
- the relational increase of autonomy from part of enterprises up to now attested on the market captive, even taking advantage itself than nets or relationships of cooperation with other enterprises;
- the specialistiche search of vocations and competences that are useful not single in the inner net to the District but in one logical of extended division of labor more.
- the formation of local institutions that give one „head“ to the District, so as to to maintain high, in this moment of redefinition of the strategies, the level of sharing and communication, clarifying the opened strategic alternatives.
These and others can be the roads in order to modify the relational reticulum of the single enterprises so as to to be redefinition of the District in sense territorial extended participates more of one.
However, what it must change, it is the way to work, the cultural attitude that the enterprises adopt to the inside of the system District.
In the same way with which the great hierarchical system of the fordista tradition it is broken off in many business units independent, ciascuna di.le which try just a relationship with the market and external partners, developing to a specific mission and more exclusive and focused competences, in the District the various units (enterprises) must increase just the patrimony of acquaintance and relations, without to more remit it to the total system (that is to other captive enterprises of the market).
This involves remarkable changes in the logic that presides to the development of every enterprise:
- increase of intelligence „online“;
- reversibility of the relations;
- formalize of the languages and the operating procedures, in order to join to communications and relations at a distance;
- professional of the job, to several the levels, in order to govern relations and competences mainly forms them;
- increasing investments and risks in immaterial resources;
- dependency from services specializes to you localizes to you also outside of the District.
This transformation is the passage necessary in order to have also a various internationalization of the enterprises, that it could mainly be articulated regarding the model of the pure export of the finished product or of the sale of blots of it and members.
The issue to place is that one „not to svendere“ the competences and the advantages of the District, but to expand woven the relational inside facendogli to lose its captive characters and its geographic ristrettezza. Draft to prime total nets on a carrying nucleus still valid of competences and cycles localizes to you in the District, that it can become the focale point of relations extended towards the outside.
In so far as variable the strategic one not is more neither the export than goodses (than it does not favor the alliances with foreign partners), neither the export of blots of it or members (that it transfers the acquaintances without radication of the relations); but it is the formation of channels of exchange regulated of the acquaintances and combined accumulation of new acquaintances. The income in net of new partners (also foreign) must be seen also like a learning occasion: there are new markets and new competences that, exchanging itself with those traditional ones of the District, can open new business, explore new needs, suggest to new products and new uses of the traditional products.
Only in this way the evolution towards the outside, that it is unavoidable, will be able not to be a moment of impoverishment of the District, but to prime of an evolution towards variety and competences not still explored.
The UNFAVORABLE FACTORS To The NEW MANAGEMENT Of the ACQUAINTANCE
The Federcomin has carried out one study on the industrial Districts to national level, with the support of the Censis. The analysis has been based on questionnaires subordinates to several responsibles of the operating companies in OF.
Entering more in the detail, from the answers it emerges, in fact, a insufficient spread of district enterprises that are innovating their decisional systems and their organizational processes with one not advanced incidence of companies to 10% of the total of the enterprises.
It goes better regarding the spread than enterprises that use systems of Customer Relationship Management, like also regarding the development initiatives of Supply Chain Management.
|BUSINESS INITIATIVES INTELLIGENCE|
|Not there are meaningful experiences in course||52,5|
|The number of experiences is modest < 10%||45,0|
|The number of experiences is discreet > 10% < 30%||2,5|
|The number of experiences is elevated > 30%||—|
|Not there are meaningful experiences in course||45,0|
|The number of experiences is modest < 10%||42,5|
|The number of experiences is discreet > 10% < 30%||10,0|
|The number of experiences is elevated > 30%||2,5|
|Not there are meaningful experiences in course||31,7|
|The number of experiences is modest < 10%||48,8|
|The number of experiences is discreet > 10% < 30%||19,5|
|The number of experiences is elevated > 30%||4,0|
|INITIATIVES OF SUPPLY CHAIN Mgmt|
|Not there are meaningful experiences in course||45,0|
|The number of experiences is modest < 10%||45,0|
|The number of experiences is discreet > 10% < 30%||10,0|
|The number of experiences is elevated > 30%||—|
|INZIATIVE OF IT CONSULTING|
|Not there are meaningful experiences in course||33,0|
|The number of experiences is modest < 10%||48,8|
|The number of experiences is discreet > 10% < 30%||17,9|
|The number of experiences is elevated > 30%||3,6|
In spite of the difficulties, in the Districts and the other areas where thickenings of productive takeovers are characterized it evidences one wide presence of common initiatives founded on the development of technological applications.
In great part of the Districts they are set offing or at least planning new activities and new technological applications founded on the shared use of the new technologies of the information and the communication.
In 36% of Districts they are found, therefore, situated web common been born from initiatives of local enterprises, finalizes to you in some measure to the promotion of the business relation, to the controlled exchange of information for the search of customers and suppliers and in order to form groups of purchase.
Some of the more meaningful experiences or more advances as as an example the development and the sharing of software applied in order to optimize produced and common business processes to you turn out still marginal of the sort being present already under way initiatives in little more than a District on ten.
In order to clear the sense of the initiatives realized or planned has been asked the interlocutors of the Districts, which it was the main purpose of the several initiatives of IT.
- From the answers it emerges as the new technologies of the information and the communication are considered essentially like with of instruments fundamentalally directed to improve the abilities to communication of the enterprises towards the outside. The necessity to construct external nets to the district system seems to be the main scope of here under way the technological initiatives sin being the function of the marked communication in 59% of the Districts.
- Present also the purpose to favor the contacts and the exchanges of information between the companies marked from 31% of the enterprises of the Districts.
- The innovation introduced from the technologies and the applications of digital communication them comes only weakly perceived like lever in a position to reingegnerizzare the enterprises or still renewing the managerial models or in a position to reorganizing the production processes with an always greater involvement of external actors to the enterprise.
The concrete realizations are still essentially centered on the turned comunicativa dimension towards the outside.
Other they give to you interesting:
|DATA BANKS TO YOU COMMON|
|No initiative to care||45,3|
|DEVELOPMENT And SHARING OF SOFTWARE|
|No initiative to care||60,5|
I have thought important to bring back and to revalue they give to you following; the letters in capital to the end of the rigo are the simbologia that I have adopted for those answers that I thought were analogous between they.
Purpose of the under way initiatives or in plan (val. %)
- To improve communication ability enterprises towards the esterno59,0 To
- To favor contacts and exchanges of information between the 30,8 companies B
- To create systems informed to you common for development 15,4 marketings C
- To create systems informed to you common for logistic development 17,9 D
- To consolidate total logistics goodses and produced information 12,8 D
- To use data banks to you 17,9 B
- To supply technological attendance 12,8 and
- Formation professionality tied to the development technologies 17,9 and
- To realize modality of electronic commerce 20,5 F
- To allow the birth of fast systems of subfornitura 30,8 D
- To develop modality of e-commerce between 43,6 enterprises B
The total is not equal to 100 because more answers were possible
Famous the important one that task of being able to find is the presence, in this gives to you, of an other type of reading, legacy to one various aggregation of gives to you on 279.4% totals.
- IT KNOWS To improve relationships with outside 21%, and is somewhat generic like answer.
- SB Sistemi Informed to you in common interaziendale + e-commerce 33%
- SC Sistemi Informed to you in common for marketing 5.5%
- SD Sistemi informed to you in common for logistics 22.5%
- IF Formation and development of new technologies 11%
- SF e-commerce 7.3%
That that me seems to read in the search of new technologies is that the companies of the Districts want exchange of information more than every other thing with a weight of approximately 61% (Systems Informed to you), with particular attention to the logistics, the marketing and e-commerce interaziendale (the B2B).
The Federcomin analyzes also the reasons that hinder the development of the new technologies in the Districts.
The control of expenses of investment for the technological innovation is not the main factor that limits the development to local level of initiatives of technological innovation of net.
Only 15% of the interviewed ones consider the factor cost as one of the main obstacles to the activity start, to the contrary for approximately 60% of interviewed the costs they do not record for null or however in little important measure in the decisions to start or little initiatives founded on the use of the new technologies of the information and the communication.
The main obstacles to the introduction of the innovation are but external to the dimension it costs.
In 52% of the Districts there is from exceeding the difficulty to share the information with the contenders, like also records strongly, with a percentage quite more elevated being equal to 55% the fear to lose, introducing new technologies shared, the own autonomy of management.
The new technologies come therefore considered like factors in a position to stravolgere the normal competitive relationship also to the inside of the dimension of District embezzling advantages to the companies.
The use of common technological platforms, the sharing of information not only represents a danger because they could benefit the competition but also because they risk to make to lose to the company the own managerial autonomy enslaving it to job models eterodiretti, tax from the technological platform or more worse still from strong contenders or suppliers and customers in a position to imposing the organizational changes.
The knowledge of these problematic ones subtends therefore to an attitude of precaution when not of sfavore towards a development of systems of net between companies.
The choice to start common initiatives depends fundamentalally or on the presence of a strong enterprise in the territory that operates in one logical district in which the relationships between companies they turn out of hierarchical type, in degree that is to impose relational models or from an elevated cooperative level between equal enterprises, accustomed to operate in one logical of full collaboration.
Also the difficulty of finding of characterized human resources comes evidenced with force like problem that hinders the increase of the innovation. The problem of the finding turns out a lot or enough important in 52% of the Districts.
Draft of an obstacle not little account from the moment that all the activities of development of systems and applications I found to you on the new technologies must be able to count on the characterized availability of understood them human; the skill shortage, that is the deficiency of professional figures in the within of activities ICT, is of the order at least 200 mila persons in next the two years. The problem in the Districts already emerges, therefore, in way clearly.
The companies but are not disposed to sobbarcarsi the burdens for the formation and just for this the factor costs of formation does not come considered from the interlocutors of the Districts and the localismi like an important problem.
The Pmi Italian in kind does not preview to support expenses for the formation, draft of a cost regarding which the idea is radicata that must be supported from external subjects the entrepreneurial world.
|The INVESTMENT COSTS TOO MUCH ELEVATE To YOU|
|For null important||4,0|
|Much important one||2,1|
|DIFFICULTY TO SHARE INFORMATION WITH the CONTENDERS|
|For null important||2,9|
|Much important one||28,3|
|IMPULSE Of the COMPANIES TO CONSERVE A MANAGEMENT AUTONOMY|
|For null important||2,2|
|Much important one||26,1|
|DIFFICULTY OF FINDING OF CHARACTERIZED HUMAN RESOURCES|
|For null important||8,3|
|Much important one||27,1|
|The COSTS FOR The FORMATION Of The HUMAN RESOURCES|
|For null important||5,6|
|Much important one||4,2|
The considerations made on the base of the analyses of the Federcomin, carry to deepen the analysis of the potentiality of the New Management of the Acquaintance for the Districts on Logistics and Marketing in common.
- TO PLAN THE DATABASE
- THE MODEL ENTITY-RELATIONS FOR THE VIRTUAL WAREHOUSE
- A PROBLEM TO RESOLVE
- THE NORMALIZATION
TO PLAN THE DATABASE
In the within of the bases of they give to you, has consolidated in the years a plan methodology that has given test to satisfy requirement that a methodology for bases of they give to you must guarantee:
- the name and address regarding the applications and to the systems in game (and therefore the possibility of I use independently from the problem to the study and the instruments to disposition); it is an essential requirement for the planning of a database to use of the Virtual Warehouse, that it must be used in various Industrial Districts;
- the quality of the product in terms of correctness, thoroughness and efficiency regarding the employed resources;
- the use facility is of the strategies is of the reference models.
We have three is made of planning:
- Conceptual planning. Its scope is that one to represent the detailed lists informs them of the truth of interest in terms of a formal description and completes, but independent from the represent criteria it uses you in the systems of management of the bases of give to you. The product of this phase comes called conceptual outline and ago reference to a conceptual model of gives to you. In this phase it is concentrated to us on the informative aspect of the base of give to you.
- Logical planning. It consists in the translation of the conceptual outline, in the model of represent of give to you adopted from the system of management of base of give to disposition. The product of this phase is the logical outline of the base of gives to you and ago reference to a logical model of gives to you. It is still independent from physical details. In this phase a quality control of the product is carried out also, with the normalization.
- Physical planning. Such model depends on the specific system of management bases of gives to you chosen and it is based on the criteria of physical organization of give to you in that system.
Hour the various ones will be acquired knowledge are made of planning of bases of give to you, adapted to insert the Virtual Warehouse.
THE CONCEPTUAL PLANNING: THE MODEL ENTITY-RELATIONS
In this type of planning three fundamental figures of represent are used:
- Entity; they represent classes of objects (made, things, persons, as an example) that they have common property and „independent“ existence to the ends of the interest application. An occurrence of an entity is not a value that identifies an object, but the same object.
- Relations; they represent the logical ties, meant you for the application of interest, between two or more entity.
- Attributes; they constitute the elementary property of entity or relations that are of interest to the ends of the application.
THE MODEL ENTITY-RELATIONS FOR THE VIRTUAL WAREHOUSE
Before resorting to the outline It are, must comprise the processes operated you of the MV well.
In this way, every single operation, important to the ends of the operation of the MV and its operativity, must be described from Entity or Relations.
Main the operating process, managed directly from the Virtual Warehouse, is what it allows to even resupply the district warehouses that have finished the supply of a good for the maintenance and have urgent need of a resupply, because an unexpected breakdown has been taken place or they are badly calculates the times to you of normal supplying, and therefore are not possible to attend reintegro from ordinary supplying. In the case in which the real warehouse it previewed not to make it until next ordinary supplying, it emits one demanded to the MV, after to have of see the eventual situated availability on the operating one of the Virtual Warehouse.
As an example, what the customer can visionare on situated the operating one of the MV is one table like that follows.
If the customer send the code trades them of a product or its description, it will be able see the availability and to comprise if set up table corresponds to the characteristics demanded through one therefore:
|006012-8201||Discs pushers on spheres||100||10|
|11Ü6ES981OJA11||Filter for PLC Siemens||200||30|
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Selecting „it captures“ starts the demand process and from that moment in then it must only attend that the material comes delivered to it.
An other typical action for the customer is that one to make available a member or of the material of maintenance in kind.
All the material that it will want to make available to the rest of the district customers will come send in one table similar to that previous one.
We see which are the fundamental passages and what comes generated to level machine.
The customer will demand through one particular mask a specific type of material in one determined amount. It, unconsciously has formulated one „query“, that is one demanded of information, to the table of the „virtual lyings“; the obtained answer will generate one table like that previous one, with the eventual amount available.
The table on which the demanded information are available several contains also gives you relati you to who possesses the good available and other previous information on its company, reliabilities, orders; in other words its „history“ in the relationships with the MV. Important to put in evidence that all this give you „personal“ is accessible only to the MV and not to the customers, for obvious reasons trades them.
Once carried out the demand could turn out multiple availability, and then in the generated answer they will come visualized the various availabilities and the various prices.
It will be to the customer to choose the more adequate supply based on the price and to the offered amount.
The last step is that one of the emission of the bubble, completes of all the identified ones to you necessary in order to identify the store clerk, its times and its quality.
The Virtual Warehouse carries out a linear role, but the information obtained with these simple information are incredible and could be used in the Datawarehouse.
The passage to the outline Entity Relations is simple, and reflects in not sequenziale way in the time the logical process of the MV.
In the following outline the Entities and the Relations are brought back.
Endured after, in reference to the same ones, they come exposed the single attributes of the entities and the relations, that they will allow to characterize with thoroughness the occurrences of the same ones.
The numbers between parenthesis, to flank of every relation, are not other that the „cardinalità“, and describes the minimal and maximum number of the entities that can participate to the relations.
They can be:
- Relations one by one, for which to the relation single occurrence of entity for time and both participates one.
- Relations one to many, for which to the relation for a single occurrence of entity of one of the two participants varied occurrences of the other.
- Relations many to many, for which it is worth also the viceversa of the previous one.
As an example, in the case of the entity „warehouse that it demands“, to the relation demanded emission „can also not participate all the warehouses, and therefore the minimal presence is“ 0″, while every issued demand makes reference to and a single warehouse, and therefore the maximum cardinalità is „1“, for the entity „warehouse that it demands“, in the aforesaid relation.
In the case instead of the demand, every single it has been emitted from a single warehouse, therefore the minimum is „1“, while more demanded they can be emitted from the same warehouse, from which cardinalità maximum „N“.
Finally, it must remember that an equal minimal cardinalità to „0“ indicates that the participation to the relation is partial, that is the occurrence can or it cannot participate to the relation.
Instead, greater a minimal cardinalità of „0“ indicates a participation total, that is there is existential dependency, and ciascuna entity participates to the relation.
In the previous diagram, like saying, the attributes lack.
The attributes of the „demand“ must contain:
- Identificator of the demand
- Identificator of the warehouse that it demands
- Identificator of the demanded product
- Description of the demanded product
- Quantitative demanded
In order to identify the single occurrence of the entity, enough to know the identificativo of the demand.
The attributes of the lying near the warehouses and the conveyors, for every type of product, will be identify give to you:
- Identificator warehouse
- Identificator produced (univoco for all the District)
- Produced description
that they are identificators exteriors because they come from the relation of the lying with the demand for supply. The only attribute just of the entity is the amount available.
Same thing is said for the noticeable lyings near the conveyors.
The occurrences will be identified only from the produced identify and of its description, with to that one of the warehouse and form the primary key, that is are attributes that entirety identify the only availability; to notice that the produced identify alone not enough, because it must maintain like key also the technical characteristics of the product.
Once arrived the demand, after to have verified the lyings, the accessory characteristics of the warehouse, which position are controlled, the nominal maximum lying, owner and they become part in the written documentation of the bubble.
Same speech is feasible for the characteristics of the conveyors.
Once the previous operations carried out, and verified that all the actors of the process are available, the MV can emit the bubble.
To notice that the insertion of the delivery date comes postponed to the effective delivery, and moreover bubble and demand for supply they have two different values of identification because it is possible that the quantitative one of goods is different.
The Virtual Warehouse could have also the task to choose the optimal distance for the conveyor, based on the characteristics of means, the practicability and the degree of reliability of the conveyor, in connection with the importance and urgency of the delivery.
A PROBLEM TO RESOLVE
An important problem to the realization of the database of the Virtual Warehouse regards the identification of the products that the customer tries.
In the ER one has represented the good demanded with a code and one description; in truth bottom issue exists one.
Every product has a its identification, a code that, in theory, would have to allow to identify the good univocamente. Therefore it happens in fact to the source, that is when the good comes completed comes assigned a code to it trades them univoco for the company manufacturer, and that one would have to be maintained from the companies that they acquire that good, in such way to allow to easy demand attendance and members of reciprocation.
Unfortunately, the intermediaries between producer and final customer exist.
The intermediary, that he can as an example be the installations, adds a its personalized code that he overlaps and he eliminates that one of the producer, rendering the system, the machinery or the irrintracciabile piece for the customer, if not through the intermediary.
An intermediary has therefore acquired a position privileged and irrenounceable for the customer, as well as more fort how much the more that good is particular.
This allows it to swell prices and maintenance of which, in practical, it stops a real monopoly.
An advantage deriving from the adhesion to the plan of Virtual Warehouse is that one of having the pulizia of these keys of produced identificativo and obtaining one at least identification univoca to district level. The saving on the purchase, that it would be possible to carry out directly from the constructor and to a sure inferior price, is inequivocabile.
The objective of the logical planning is that one to construct a logical outline that can describe, in correct and efficient way, all the contained information in the outline Is, produced in the phase of conceptual planning.
Simple translation is not one, in how much draft to satisfy two requirements:
- to simplify the translation
- to optimize the plan
The first phase is therefore that one of the restructure of the outline Entity Relations, and is an independent model from the chosen logical model and it is based on the criteria of optimization of the outline and simplification of the next phase.
The analysis of the redundancies is the first step, that is they can be eliminated give to you that they can be derives to you.
This phase already has been held in consideration during the ER, like also the elimination of external identificatori already has been taken in consideration during the ER, by means of the inclusion of identificatori of the entities been involved in the external identification.
As an example, in the entity „warehouse lying“, the only attribute would have had to be „value of the lying“, while „Identification Warehouse“, „Produced Identification“, „Produced Description“ is already present between the attributes of „the Demanded“ Entity, and therefore is identification exteriors.
After several passages, which the elimination of the hierarchy, the join and the separation of the entities, passages that are not present here because ve of it is not need, can be passed to the translation towards the relational model.
Therefore we will have:
- for every entity, one relation with the same name having for same attributes attributes of the entity and for key its identification
- for every relation, one relation with the same name having for attributes the attributes of the association and the identification of the been involved entities
WAREHOUSE (ID_Magazzino, Center, Position GPS, Owner)
The same relation will come then used in order to characterize the yielding warehouse.
Then it is passed to the emission of the demand for supply:
RICHIESTA_MAG_RICH(ID_Rich_a_MV, ID_Mag_Rich, Quant_Rich, ID_Prod_Rich, „Des_Prod“).
The Virtual Warehouse is only and therefore it does not have need of identification of relation.
Through the demand it is possible to verify the lying near the district warehouses and the other conveyors:
GIACENZA_TRASP (ID_Trasportatore, ID_Prodotto, Des_Prod, quantitative)
GIACENZA_MAGAZZINO (ID_Magazzino, ID_Prodotto, quantitative Des_Prod)
The Virtual Warehouse emits the bubble then:
BUBBLE (ID_Bolla, ID_Magazzino_Cedente, ID_Prodotto, Des_Prod, Quantitative, ID_Trasp, Data_Richiesta, Data_Consegna).
In this first phase, but some fields still are settings on the NULL, because we know only the identificativo of the bubble, of the product, its description and the date of the demand. All the rest will come compiled with the following operations.
The Virtual Warehouse could choose the distances for several the conveyors:
DISTANCE (ID_Percorso, ID_Bolla)
after to have some analyzed the cover:
COVER (ID_Percorso, Length, Riforn_Benz, Velocità_Max)
and obviously after to have chosen the conveyors based on their characteristics:
CARATTERISTICHE_TRASP (ID_Trasp, Coordinate_GPS, Modo_Trasp, Capacità_Max, Trasp Type)
Obviously if the conveyor already has on means the goods, this last passage comes jumped.
With this phase all the entities and the relations have been transformed in relations of the relational model.
Once ended the passage to the relational outline, one is carried out species of „quality control“ of the logical planning, through the studies of some said property normal shapes.
For those outlines that do not satisfy the normal shapes the normalization is carried out, that it concurs to obtain the intentional quality.
Moreover, the planning methodologies that have been adopted up to now, allow of usual to obtain outlines that they satisfy the forms of normal schools.
Therefore this passage is more one verification that not true and just a passage of normalization.
The redundancies and the anomalies have been studied cross them so-called dependencies work them, that is a type tie works them between the attributes of one relation. These dependencies work allow them the presence of tuple between equal they on the attributes. A relation r on an outline R(X) is given and two sottoinsiemi of not empty attributes Y and Z of X, we will say that it exists on r a dependency works them between Y and Z if, for every brace of tuple T1 and t2 of r having the same values on the Y attributes, it turns out that T1 and t2 has same values also on the attributes of Z.
The taken normal shape as reference in this job is the Normal Shape of Boyce and Codd: that is a relation r is in this shape if, for every dependency X work them not banal? Y defined on it, X contains one K key of r, that is X are superkey for r, that is allow to identify all separately the tuple.
The first relation that is analyzed is:
WAREHOUSE (ID_Magazzino, Center, Position GPS, Owner)
A dependency would exist works them between Center and Owner, because it is possible that the same owner can have more warehouses in the same center, and if the same owner had as single tie that one of having warehouses in the same center (as an example industrial zone). In order to avoid this dependency it must be attention to the meant one that „Center“ is given to the term.
The second one is:
BUBBLE (ID_Bolla, ID_Magazzino_Cedente, ID_Prodotto, Des_prod, Quantitative, ID_Trasp, Data_Richiesta, Data_Consegna)
Sussisterebbe a dependency works them between ID_Prodotto and ID_Trasp, if the conveyors were used to always carry the same type of product. It could happen, but given the type of products it transports to you in the Districts, this is one hypothesis difficult, even if not impossible.
From how much it has been looked at, the previous planning has given already turns out hopes to you to you, and the cases of dependencies work them not banal are somewhat remote.
THE PHYSICAL PLANNING
Once the two finished are made previous, it is passed to the physical planning, that is they choose the software specific, the architecture hardware on which implementing the job and the physical characteristics that allow to manage the DB.
This phase is but unavoidable from the real case, that is is closely necessary to know the number of customers, the volume of the accesses, gives to you more uses you; without to count that the various architectures have various costs of investment and maintenance.
The only part that can be carried a.termine in this phase, a.tito it esplicativo, is the choice of the software and the creation of the database true and just through the same one.
Referring to the case of the Plan of Virtual Warehouse, the chosen applicativo is Microsoft SQL Server 2000 (Trial Version), easy reperibile on the given market its elevated spread.
The first phase has been that one of the creation of the tables from the relations previously created.
As an example, the table „Warehouse that it demands“, had relational shape
WAREHOUSE (ID_Magazzino, Center, Position GPS, Owner)
Every single table will come defined in automatic way, leaving from a code SQL standard that the same SQL Server generates.
The tables to they time will have of the columns whose tito them they correspond to the attributes that are assign to you in the relations.
These attributes will have one they particular, characteristic shape of the type with which they will have to be represents to you.
As an example it is chosen to identify the warehouse with a type code decimates them with precision, that is the maximum number of figures decimates used them in the represent of that value, maximum ten.
Moreover value NULL is not allowed, also because ID_Magazzino is primary key of the relation.
This passage for every relation is carried out.
To the end of this phase the relations between tables are introduced.
As an example, the warehouse petitioner emits one demanded of the lacking material, and this action is rappresentabile through one relation, that is „Demanded Material“.
The relation is possible for the existing tie between ID_Mag_Rich and ID_Magazzino.
The complete picture is what it follows:
Once placed the relations, the job base is made.
Its possible to carry out other passages for affinare and personalizing the use of the database.
As an example they can (or in some cases the CHECK ties must) be introduced, that they allow to guarantee integrity of give to you.
A characteristic operation, a lot used in this database is that one on the minimal and maximum length of the present values in the occurrences.
As an example, it is important to have a length value univoco in order to identify the codes of the products:
LEN (ID_Prodotto) = 6.
Other values respect in all the tables to you are (to character of the all indicative):
And they must be respects to you when they come inserted, otherwise gives life to not valid values, and the breaking in of the occurrence is not allowed.
On this base of they give to you is possible to execute very many operations, from the insertion to the cancellation, the search intercrossed to the modification.
Its possible create of the procedures, the functions customer, all for one optimal management of the same one.
But all this allows to manage gives and values to you operated to you, that is puts into effect them; they are relatively little important in order to supply true and just an aid to a system of support to the decisions.
All this will come supplied through means of the Business Intelligence and the Datawarehouse, that they place however their bases in the database as soon as created.
- BUSINESS NEW TIPOLOGY OF REPORTING
- THE JUMP OF QUALITY OF THE BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE REGARDING THE TRADITIONAL SYSTEMS OF MANAGEMENT OF THE ACQUAINTANCE
- VENDOR RATING
- THE CRM
In many cases, as it has been looked at, the Industrial Districts have need of one new Management of the Acquaintance.
In the understood one it previous the theoretical necessities and modalities have been put in luminosity only to pass to this new model.
Hour will be shown which it is the situation puts into effect them to Systems of Support to the Decisions, therefore as they were understandings before the informatization, and of the proposals of application of the new systems of reporting for the Industrial Districts.
THE BUSINESS REPORTING PUTS INTO EFFECT THEM
Def: “ The directional Reporting is constituted from those with of statements, tables and diagrams, opportunely structured, for area of responsibility and objects of the control, that they put to comparison, normally, effectively give you consuntivati with those programmed ones, with the objective to evidence to the direction and to management the respect of it objects to you programmed, to identify the eventual causes of movement, to favor the adoption of eventual corrective actions and consequently to estimate the performances of several the responsibles operated to you „.
The employment of the reporting in the business strategies has the objective to confer to managers the possibilities to verify, anytime, the effective validity of the planned actions and, in the case of replies denied to you, to supply elements useful to the search of the causes and to suggest corrective actions.
The contemporary enterprises face one complex competitive truth and, often, in fast evolution; just for this, they face the risk to see the hypotheses old on the strategies of market that had been made during programming and have therefore the necessity to change them quickly, for being able to take advantage of the new opportunities or in order to be confronted with scenes not positive you.
This risk tramuta in certainty the how much the more market is unstable, therefore it is a lot important, for the decisive ones, to acquire a natural predisposition to the so-called organizational learning, that it means to acquire the ability to reconsider all critically the made choices, also changing in radical way the same mechanisms of decision and rules of management (is a cognitive mechanism based on a simple model feedback, that is as it increases to the experience the model comes corrected and improved).
In fact, in the companies they come fixed of in the long term objects (mission and planning to you), while for the program of verifications they come introduced of objects to you intermediate (milestones), that they concur of the adapted verifications.
The choice of the intermediate ones already shapes, of fact, one knowledge of the change of performance and the emergency of having see again the targets specific.
This cyclical mechanism of programming, control of the milestones, correction, is very famous like Management Performance.
The short way in order see again and to control objects to it to you intermediate, is that one of monitorare the pointers continuously key (Key Indicators Performance) that they allow to control the course of the performances (gap analysis) and to confront the KPI with the acceptable values (benchmarking) in order to guarantee the good course of the business business and to pursue of the coherent strategies with the mission.
BUSINESS NEW TIPOLOGY OF REPORTING
In a generalized manner it is not possible to define an only outline of reporting that the business truths go well for all.
In the traditional approach it is possible to find various points of force and al time same of weakness.
The model classic previews the fixation of objects to you generates them, accumulates to you to business level, of yield or profit, which the ROI or the ROE, and their decomposition in economic sottobiettivi assigns several to the centers of responsibility (centers of cost, revenue and profit), of glare to that it is the organizational structure of the company.
From this drift that a structure of reporting traditional is focused on economic parameters on which the profit of the short period depends.
The points of force of the model are:
- I use of an only parameter with synthesis characteristics, for every objective;
- direct and immediate tie with the profit;
- easy reperibili information in the accounting methods;
The mancanze, that they become more and more important in the contemporary enterprise, are:
- inability to synthetize some variable managerial important ones, like as an example the quality of product or service, the degree of innovation and the image, that they are the true factors of happening of the modern enterprise;
- excessive emphasis on the short period where, instead, the measurement of the performances has great importance on medium-along period;
- too much sector risk of management. This problem is reflected of the old corporate structure modeled on the functions (accounting, production, warehouse, planning.), rather than oriented to the business process, that it cross-sectionally proceeds along all the functions. That attention to variable that they are involved the single centers, neglecting interrelations between the business units is only lend; in this way it is succeeded to obtain an only local improvement and not of the company in its complex.
„the budgetaria“ programming, the reporting directional, the economic-financial indices, that they are to the base of the model classic, were already use you in the first half of the past century. From then it has been a strong change in the corporate structures, above all in the barycentre of the patrimonial structure of many organizations.
In last the two decades the weight of the assets intangible on the total economic value of enterprise has gone considerably increasing. Parallel the strategic importance of the immaterial resources has grown also, that all the industrial fields are committees to more assume a focale role for the companies evolute in the competitive truths nearly and of the services.
And therefore paradoxical that, of against, takes place in very many companies a evident delay in the adaptation of the techniques of control/appraisal of the management.
For these limits it has been attempted to redesign the system of reporting placing side by side to the traditional system, that it proposes the indices of profit, other parameters not only quantitati to you and not only monetary in order to embrace all the critical managerial dimensions;
as an example in order to maintain under control the quality to the percentages of refuse and the rendered number are analyzed of, in order to test the goodness of the suppliers monitorano the times of delivery and the flexibility of mix.
CONTAINED And CHARACTERISTIC Of The NEW SYSTEMS OF REPORTING
Today, the companies stretch to introduce in the systems of reporting the analysis of the critical factors us of happening, that is all those variable indicative for the happened one of a company.
Draft of the variable ones that they assure the competitive advantage in along period and whose control concurs good performances with the enterprise.
These key factors are measured through the pointers key (Key Indicator Performance), the whose fundamental aim is that one to signal to the management like is behaving the company and like every Center of Responsibility is moving.
These pointers must have of the peculiarities that of it concur a corrected operation and that of it they guarantee the goodness. They have been some characterizes three to you:
- Frequency; the tendency, most important, that it is found is that one of I use of managed generating instruments of report from the same utenti/decisori that allow an aperiodicity of the reporting, the so-called ad hoc report, which they place side by side traditional reports the periodic ones, with frequency that is function of the rhythm with which they take various decisioni.La the frequency, in a generalized manner, is as well as greater how much the more diminishes the level of decisional responsibility. For the high direction salaries can be enough reports, while a decisore that works on the line has need of at least every day modernizations. In a generalized manner, the frequency depends also on the critic of the monitoration area, and on the cost of obtaining of the information of the reports.
- Timeliness; to null it serves to establish of the short intervals of time if then the instruments of control and those informed to you, are not in a position to supplying give to you in time. The risk would be run to supply the reports time outside, for decisions that in truth already have been taken. This problem is slowly disappearing, just with the introduction of new computer science technologies, which allow an analysis nearly in real time, to more and more low costs. The companies that do not use the new technologies have still this problem in important dimensions.
- Shape; the shape of the report assumes remarkable importance: it represents, in fact, an instrument of communication in a position to emphasizing and correctly addressing the messages contained in the system. It is necessary that the information are important, reliable and timely, but above all clear and comprehensible. That several shapes of represent exist (to tabellare, novellistic, graphical and miscellanea) that they can be interchanged.
To these first three property I would add, my opinion, also following:
- Personalizations; it is important that the single reports are rapportati to the single customer, than the standardization is used less possible and that every person can have use of of the information of which really has need, neither in more, neither in less.
- Catching; the new systems of report are closely legacies to the business nets, that they allow the immediate shipment of report the standards, and the acquisition in times of the order of the minuteren of reports personalizes (via e-mail or remote sharing to you).
All the illustrated characteristics over make yes that the report it is powerful and effectively useful means to the decisional system. These requirement that I have listed, cannot more being satisfied with paper, pen and calculator, but only through the new computer science technologies, that they allow the contemporary management of million give to you.
THE JUMP OF QUALITY OF THE BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE REGARDING THE TRADITIONAL SYSTEMS OF MANAGEMENT OF THE ACQUAINTANCE
As I have said previously, the category of products informed to us destined to the support of the directional activities is called Decision Support System.
In 1989, however, H.Dresner, analyst of the „Gartner Group“ (advising IT), coined the Business term Intelligence in order to indicate one class of instruments and informative problematic computer science applications in a position to coming encounter to the business ones, therefore to the problems of reporting.
Therefore it comprises tools of DSS but, al same time, introduces a sottoinsieme of simpler instruments, revolts directly to the managers business that do not have one deepened acquaintance of the computer.
The model to the base is relatively simple, and allows to calculate sums, averages or distributions.
As an example, the responsible of the sales wants to know how much has been sold from every single vendor, in every region. Based on it turns out obtained to you through of the simple condensations of give to you, it will be able to know if to reward or less the vendors for ciascuna region, or will be able to know if see again the plan of the sales.
From this point of view, he could themselves be said that not there is null of new regarding simple junior clerks you of common use, and could appear true if you did not make some simple specify. Not there is null of extraordinary in making additions, removals, totals, averages, distributions and other, but the problem is that, to the state they puts into effect, the volume of gives to you is enormous, the sources of give to you are disparate, and the calculations you execute yourself in the classic way would carry too much via time.
The value added from the BI system is just in the ability to add large and disparate amounts of give to you, to render not premanifactured, simple, flexible the analysis and the report short. It is not only a technological innovation but it must be seen mainly like strategic, in how much the analysis activity comes to move from staff specialized to all the manager of the company.
As an example, if a manager it had need to know the course of the refuse of production of the M1 machine and wanted to characterize of the distribution and several the courses, it had need that a technician collected and analyzed gives to you; after obvious technical times and eventual bureaucratic times the manager entered in possession of the report. Hour enough that the manager make the demand to the calculating and this answers in automatic way, introducing the report in graphical shape, to tables or other, even confronting the performances than M1 with all the distributions of the others blot some; all it happens from some second to little minuteren.
The improvement of the efficiency, let alone the lessening of the times and the costs of analysis, is not from underrating for no type of company. The analysis more turns out much to be personalized. As I have said poc indeed between manager and the information there were various obstacles, that it carried the extreme difficulty to the one who which it wanted to carry out of the more complex and deepened analyses.
Hour is the customer who decides in real time on which dimensions to carry out the analysis, is they time, space, customer, employee, or how much other can appear in the base of gives to you.
Often part from information more combined in order then to explode them more in the detail.
If, as an example, in a first one report with they give of the profits of all the branchs (office) to you, the region To has a decrease of sales, in a second report the manager can decide to only visualize the points sale of that region; if one noticed that the storees A1 and A5 are in loss could formulate a third party report where the entrances of those storees for every product of mix the business one are shown. They are turns out to you of the analyses previous to allow setting up the parameters of those ollowing, without that it has limitations of risen, due to technical times of drawing up of the report or to complexity of the demand.
In the approach classic of the DSS there are models of Operations research, analysis with heuristic methods, and others and you vary coming from criteria from the most various traditions of the Management Science, than they address to problematic with characteristics static, of simple type, and nearly always solvable for analogies; the decisore chooses the model and, in the more difficult cases, it takes give you of departure, ago its calculate, and automatically he has optimal solution (DSS Model Driven).
These systems, alone, do not constitute more one intelligent choice, just because the greater part of the systems and the problems that must resolve is becomes to you very more twisted and singular.
The decisore, that it chooses to use the Given DSS Driven, which exactly the BI, strongly passes from a relatively passive role to one interaction that the filler to being truly decisore in the complex systems.
It has the possibility to move around in the more wide one of the optimal solutions, asking continuously „what you would happen if cambiasse?(what if, said also analyze then query)“, and adapting themselves to the truth of the problem. Once completed this way, it chooses „subjective and objective“ the optimal one, subjective because its way is still marked from its intuito one and its preparation, objective because to the base of the system there are always solid theoretical bases.
A substantial change regarding the approach is had therefore traditional in which they came codified several, but predefined, perspective on gives to you.
The POTENTIALITIES Of the BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE FOR the DISTRICTS
The Business Intelligence, initially through the Virtual Warehouse, can help to regulate and to render the analysis of the acquaintance in the new industrial Districts efficient and rigorous, that they have to disposition an immense patrimony of new give to you that they wait for of being transforms to you in information.
The type mechanisms 1.a (trial & error) can remarkablly be formalize to you, in the sense that the datawarehousing can carry to collect all this gives to you in great bases, to various levels of aggregation. Through feedback mechanisms, that they analyze the processes and scovano the relations between the errors, the successes and the new tendencies (given mining), can be succeeded in to modify the same business and extra-business processes.
As an example, after a long experience and thanks to a fulminating idea one notices to us that the greater part of the refuse is had in sure timetables of the day and to sure conditions, while the production higher quality is had in others. An application of the date mining very planned would notice endured that to the starter it blots some to them have gets worse tolerances (because they are cold and not to regimen), and the laborers have get worse rendering to the beginning and the end of the day, or in particular days of the week rather than others. On these considerations to the adapted countermeasures and modification are taken the organization of the job or other.
The type mechanisms 2c, that is those generate thanks to you to the interactions between companies, become gestibili less and less with the traditional rules, for the increase of the complexity of the dipanano analysis and on two roads, the relations between the enterprises to the inside of the District and those of the entity District with the new international scene.
It can to think that, as it has been for all the companies that have been put in game on the international markets, also in this case the BI can be taken advantage of for various analyses
As an example the marketing analyses; a return of information on the sales in the United States, punctual and former, let alone timely, can allow Natuzzi to change repentinamente broken off in the production of some types of divani, in some regions rather than in others of the United States.
It follows hour the indication of the three points that could offer economic convenience to carry out investments in BI; they cover the new district relations: the relationships with the suppliers (inner and external) and the relationships with the distributors, mainly on the international markets:
- Vendor Rating
The traditional customer it mainly selects its supplier on the base of the reputation and the interpersonal relationships. The selection of the supplier as the ripetitività of the relations is due mainly to the social mechanisms that characterize the District like the mutual confidence, the engagement and reputation.
Therefore the price, the confidence, rather than a detailed appraisal of the specializations (skills) of the supplier, is the main instruments of appraisal. The actors are mainly single vendors and purchasers.
With enterprise leader in order defining and holding agreements of along term with the suppliers, than usually they are to the inside of the same District, the enterprise leader places one increasing attention in the appraisal of the performances of the suppliers. From an organizational point of view he means to have a greater control on functions which Qualities, Production, and design beyond that on the purchase unit. From a manageriale point of view he means that the criteria of appraisal of the suppliers are increase to you. Behind the technical appraisal of the single store clerk of supply (quality and reliability), one more accurate and completes appraisal of the supplier must be made, holding account of the availability of the delivery, the flexibility of mix and volume, the technological equipments and therefore via.
With goal-manager, the process of vendor rating comes managed directly from this last one. In this case the appraisal is more on the cost of the supply that on the performances of the supplier, with which often interest is not had to maintain relationships of along period.
Thanks to applications OLAP and of date mining we can obtain an objective, punctual and fast method in order to judge the behavior of the suppliers; an application of the sort does not have sense in Districts with the metafirm and those classics or of reduced dimensions.
Therefore to carefully estimate like ROI in some cases of enterprises of Districts classics. Great importance can cover in the mature Districts, with enterprise leader, that it has tightened relationships with the suppliers, in several bands of importance.
Typically the ipercubo on which basing it classifies it of the suppliers it can arrive until six dimensions:
- Period: years, trimesters, months;
- Lease: region, factory, warehouse
- Performance of delivery: in advance payment, punctual, in delay;
- Measures: number of lines order, lead Time, lead medium Time, % of goods refused and therefore via.
In this way it is possible to monitorare and to confront the performances of the suppliers and, therefore, to base the purchase orders on that they are more convenient for price, quality of the supply and times of delivery. Obvious that is how many more dimensions and parameters join, the much most complex one and completes becomes the analysis.
Also the management of supplyings is managed in different way to second of the type of industrial District.
In the traditional District the orders come allot to you on the base of the availability of the suppliers, therefore the contract refers to the single supply. The supplying process ends with the delivery of the goods, that it finishes with the control of the goodness of the goods from part of the purchaser.
Enterprise leader the process is radically different. First of all the order is based on one medium term planning. For more the offer than contract it is concentrated in the part begins them of the relation, when it comes defined a principle agreement on logistics and quality. The customer guarantees one sure minimal amount anniversary, proteggendo the supplier from the market risks, often obtaining the exclusive feature of the supply. In many cases the logistics re-enters in the tasks of the enterprise leader, and therefore not there is need of the quality control of the customer.
Structures of metamanagement much it makes yourself of the supply are managed directly from this metafirm that one takes care of the management orders, allocation, offer of contract, shipment, reception and produced delivery.
Important to reaffirm as the procurement closely it is connected to the vendor rating, and to all the regarding problems the search of the better possible relationship with the suppliers.
Also in this case the mature District seems to be the more fertile land for a BI application, even if the Districts with metafirm or the intermediaries are left over to you can cover one wrap interesting.
Beyond to the faced multidimensional analysis in the vendor rating, it is possible to introduce new as an example regarding analyses:
- Claims, rendered and reimburse
- Cost of the supply service
- Graduatoria of the conveyors
In the first analysis we can carry until seven dimensions:
- Period: years, trimesters, months, and therefore via
- Product: category, line of product, product
- Customer: segment, customer
- Lease: state, region, city;
- Reason of dissatisfaction: defective parts, wrong shipment, and therefore via
- Measures: n. claims, number demanded, n. rendered, n. reimbursements.
In second one typical appraisal door to six dimensions:
- Period: years, trimesters, months;
- Product: category, line of product, product;
- Customer: segment, customer;
- Lease: state, region, city;
- Degree of complexity of the relation;
- Measures: units, revenues, costs, profit, n.ro orders, n.ro claims, n.ro demanded, n.ro rendered, n.ro reimbursements
Finally the graduatoria of the conveyors:
- Period: years, trimesters, months;
- Couriers (multiple dimension): types (truck, train, airplane, ship.) and names;
- Destination: state, region, province, city;
- Customer: segment, customer
- Distance: short, medium, long;
- Type of customer: just in Time, buy and hold;
- Measures: unit, transported weight, distance, cost for Km, cost for Kg.
Thanks to this application it is possible to execute an activity of benchmarking between several the types of transport.
US (customer intelligence) supplies the instruments in order to capture, to store, to try, to approach, to organize and to analizzare/modellare they give you of the customer. It turns out you of this analysis normally are activated through systems CRM.
In short the process of it consists to US in four passages:
collection information on the customer
analysis of the information
formulation of one strategy based on the analysis to the aim to determine the value of the customer
participation based on the strategy
An inner process constitutes US in order to understand really who is the customers and that what wants from the company; applications CRM (turned the customer) always serve to keep themselves in contact with the customers, to insert their information in the database and to supply they modality in order to interact so that these interactions can be recorded and be analyzed.
For that it concerns therefore technologies CRM we can make one distinction in three segments:
- Operating CRM
- Analytical CRM
- Collaborativo CRM
The technological architecture is to half road between that operating and that analytics. The operating CRM is constituted from turned applications CRM the customer. The analytical segment includes the archives of gives to you or datawarehouse. The collaborativo CRM, directed to the points of contact of the customers, includes programs applied to you which the software for the management of the relations with the partner.
The operating CRM is a set of property that are prelocated to the management of all the operations and activity of marketing and sales. A part of the universe of the operating CRM includes the call center, that it answers to the demands for information and clarifications of the customers.
The analytical CRM consists in the capture, conservation, extrapolation, elaboration, interpretation and communication of information on the customer for a customer. (as an example, companies as Microstrategy is in a position to capturing give to you from various sources, to conserve them in database the customers and then to use hundred of algorithms for analizzarli/interpretarli based on the demands). The value of the applicativo program is not constituted solo from the algorithm and from the conservation of they give to you, but also from the ability to supply a personalized service using the information.
The collaborativo CRM is nearly a added level.
It is constituted from the center communications, the coordination net that supplies the neutral distances to the customers and the suppliers.
It could be dealt of a portale, communication channels like web, mail but also vocal applications or simply the traditional mail.
Draft of one whichever function CRM that supplies one possibility of interaction between the customer and the same channel.
Part inglobata in this third level is the PRM (partner relationship management), and is this a remarkablly important part for who must manage the Virtual Warehouse, that it has like partner all those companies that participate to MV the same one.
The PRM represents one business strategy for the selection and the management of the partner to the aim to optimize their value of along term for an enterprise. In short it means to choose the partner just, to work with they in order to help them to catch up the succeeded one in the relationship with the customers in common and to guarantee that final partner and customers are satisfied and have happened.
The management of the cycle of life of the partner constitutes the main functionality of the PRM.
The characteristics that would have to make part of the application are:
- Productivity and ricompense, the way in which the partner it will participate to the activity and it will benefit of turns out to you.
- Forecasts, the forecasts on the way in which the partner it will participate to the activity and it will benefit of turn out to you.
- Reporting, the description of as the partner it will participate to the activity and it will benefit of turns out to you.
- Management of the contract, in that way the partner is held for contract to participate to the activity and to benefit of the partnership
Once faced the general speech of the reporting for several the types of Districts, is necessary to personalize the plan for the scene of the Virtual Warehouse.
This type of plan more has need than others of the personalizetions of the customers, beyond that of the ideas of the planner.
For hour the plan of the MV is still to the stage begins them, therefore the present job has been limited to imagine the needs informed you of who will have to manage supplyings, the conveyors, the supplyes of the warehouses and therefore via, being based on the detailed lists demanded from who it is carrying ahead this plan, that is the Unitec.
CHOSEN OF THE ARCHITECTURE AND THE TIPOLOGY
The choice that is intentional to carry ahead in this job of thesis has been that one to plan a date mart, rather than a Datawarehouse in its thoroughness.
The choice has been moreover obliged from the same fact that the Virtual Warehouse is taken care of a specific business function, that is the Logistics and Supplyings.
For Datamart a under together agrees or an aggregation of gives to you, containing with of the important information for one particular area of the business, one particular division of the company, one particular category of subjects.
The chosen architecture for the model is an architecture to two levels.
In the truth of the plan in analysis the levels are four:
- Level of Sources
- Level of Feeding
- Datamart Level
- Level of Analysis
Graphically the passages are of easy understanding, like can be seen from the figure.
- The level or level of sources, in our case is only that one of the database operational, that is the DB of the MV. The possibilities to use other sources of give to you are immense; they could be the systems ERP, the systems legacy, give to you cartacei, Excel sheets.
- II the level or level of the feeding, allows to extract gives to you memoryzation to you in sources, often between heterogenous they, and to render them comprehensible to an only system, that is the Datamart. These instruments are defined like ETL (Extraction Transformation and Loading), and allow to integrate heterogenous outlines, let alone to extract, to transform, to clean up and to leak they give you of sources. The ETL can be implement you to the inside of the same company, or acquire to you to part on an immense market. In the case in examination it has not been implemented this phase.
- III the Level is that one of the Datamart. The information come collections in a single container. To flank to it it exists the container metadati that maintain information on the source, that is the structure of the original tables and the correspondences with those of arrival of the Datamart, information on the mechanisms of access, the procedures of clean and therefore via.
- IV the Level or level of analysis allows the efficient consultation and flexible of they give integrated to the ends of the drawing up of Report, analysis, simulation. From the technological point of view some technical abilities are demanded and logical to the customers who allow it to carry out an analysis through gives combines to you to you. The complex analyses gradually come yields little complex to comprise and to carry out, thanks to the propensione of the junior clerks you of this type towards the shape user-friendly, that is oriented to I use from part of the greater part of tipology customer, above all that one with insufficient computer science acquaintances.
A last choice that must make is that one on the insert of the Datamart, that is the choice between System ROLAP (Relational OLAP) and MOLAP (Multidimensional OLAP).
The choice carried out in this job is that one to adopt a system ROLAP.
This idea very is motivated from the fact that has been carried out an enormous job in literature on the relational model (the same one of the Database of the MV) and that it is the used system more to business level; this large one I use in business within implies a greater acquaintance of I use and the administration.
However, the relational model does not include the concept of dimension, measure and hierarchy, that they are typical of architectures MOLAP, and that they are to the base of the multidimensional analyses.
In order to exceed this problem specific tipology of outlines are used that allow to traslare the multidimensional model on mattoni the base constituted from attributes, relations and ties of integrity.
This role is carried out from a particular type of outline, used in the present job, that is the outline to star or star outline.
The main problem of these systems is that one of the performances, that they suffer from the necessity to execute numerous operations of connection (join) on the tables that usually are of dimensions high.
The solution to this problem is that one of denormalizzare the outlines of departure in function of the volume of gives to you uses you and from the frequency of I use and therefore to rewrite the same ones they give more times to you in same database (the redundancies), with consequent increase of the used space, but also improvement of the access performances.
From a architetturale point of view, the ROLAP adoption demands of having an intermediate stage (to middleware ago) that from interpreter between the relational Server, where the Datamart is present, and the final customer who is the so-called one front-end.
This role allows translate interrogations OLAP formulated from the customer and tradurle in instructions SQL for the Datamart.
In the present job this role is carried out from the package „Analysis“ contained „Service of series“ in SQL Server 2000.
If instead a system MOLAP had been chosen, sure the insert would have been more difficult, considering the sparsity of commercially reperibili instruments, beyond that a greater difficulty of planning on which the literature is decidedly more miser.
A sure advantage would have been what the multidimensional operations are realizable in simple and natural way, without necessity to rerun to expensive complex and (in terms of performances) associations between tables, just because these systems are conceived in multidimensional way, ad hoc for the analysis. The performances are therefore optimal.
THE PLAN OF THE DATAMART
In this paragraph it comes delineated a complete methodological picture, that it will come followed in the planning of the Datamart. The used approach is of type top-down and includes seven makes of development, that they will be continuations for the greater part.
|Analyses and reconciliation of the sources of give to you||Outline of sources||Reconciled outline|
|Analysis of requirement||Reconciled outline||Facts|
|Conceptual planning||Reconciled outline, facts||Outlines of fact|
|Validazione conceptual outline||Outlines of fact||Valicati outlines of fact|
|Logical planning||Outlines of fact; logical model target||Logical outline of the Datamart|
|Planning of the feeding||Outlines of sources;
Logical outline Datamart
|Procedures of feeding|
|Physical planning||Logical outline of the Datamart; DBMS target||Physical outline of the Datamart|
ANALYSES And RECONCILIATION Of the SOURCES OF GIVE To YOU
The first phase of the planning demands to define and to document the outline of the level of they give to you operational to leave from which it will come fed the Datamart.
It is necessary therefore to analyze and to comprise the outlines of sources available (recognition), eventually to transform them in order to carry to the light previously unexpressed useful correlations (normalization), to determine which portions they are useful to the ends of the decisional process in the business field which the date mart is dedicated, and finally to estimate the quality of give to you.
In case the sources had more to be than one, their outlines will have to be subordinates to one homogenization of give and stiff integration to you to characterize the features common and to heal the eventual inconsistenze.
It is not the situation of the case in examination, in which there is an only source, that is the database of the MV.
In case instead the Datamart of the Virtual Warehouse it had to leave directly from the database relational of the present companies in the Industrial District, the task would be extremely more difficult and longer.
In a District, less than particular and extremely fortuitous circumstances, myriads of systems exist owners; the options could be two: to replace the single systems with an only operational system, that District would mainly have sense in a wider speech regarding the plan of Virtual Warehouse (Net), or to make to maintain the systems in use and to dedicate much time to this phase of the planning.
To the end of this phase the result is the reconciled outline of the sources of gives to you; in our case the result is the Outline Entity Relations, that it is to the base of the database of the Virtual Warehouse.
ANALYSIS OF REQUIREMENT
In the phase of analysis of requirement, it must collect and leak what the single customers of the Datamart expect or could expect from the same one.
Like saying, this phase is fruit of the conversations had with the responsibles of the Plan of Virtual Warehouse; sure a deepened analysis more would be possible if the MV in its real operational behavior were analyzed.
The choice of the facts, that is the concepts of primary interest for the analysis of the system of support to the decisions, is essentially one chosen of the final customer. For every fact it must define the history interval, that is which temporal arc will have to embrace the events memoryzation.
Once it identifies the facts to you, granularità must choose the level of detail () that better they represent them.
This last choice is important in order to determine the speed of answer of the system (elevated to low level of detail) and level of detail, that is deepened how much must be our analysis.
As a result of this first analysis, and considering outline ER of the database of departure, has been characterizes these facts to you thought important for the system.
|Fact||Possible Dimensions||Possible Measures||Storicità|
|amount to warehouse||5 years|
|sold amount, amount||5 years|
|lead Time||2 years|
Table. Glossary of requirement customer
During this phase it must calculate also the workload, expressed in natural language; it is much profit in order to understand which level of soluble to use in the Datamart.
Table. Preliminary workload
That some attributes, which product or warehouse, in common to two or more are pointed out. They go flavored themselves entire, and inserted in all and the three hierarchies of the facts.
It could be interesting, in a second phase of development of the MV, in which the MV it becomes outsourcer, to establish the quality of the performances of the suppliers accustoms them; it would have therefore to add an ulterior fact, that is the supply, that it has for meter of appraisal, lead Time of supply, rendered and quality supplied assets.
Or as made additional us it could be the satisfaction of the customer, that is to understand how many times and like the customer of the MV it has carried out of the demands that they have not found matches of availability in the District, or how many times the demands have been inevase, for problems in several the passages (as an example breach of means of transport or strike of the workers of the yielding warehouse).
The conceptual planning involves uses it of requirement customer captured during the previous phase in order to design the conceptual outline of the Datamart.
The adopted model is the Dimensional Fact Model, that outline of fact for every fact of interest characterized from the customer previews the creation of one.
A fact outline is in a position to graphically describing all the concepts of the multidimensional model: facts, measures, dimensions and hierarchies.
The first fact in analysis is „Supplyes“.
Figure. Outline of fact for the supplyes
Three dimensions exist, ognuna with three various hierarchies:
product, with three distributions; that more important is the deepening of the type of the product that allows to confront produced that they have uses, similar dimensions, shapes.
date, with depth of period.
warehouse, that it allows to identify the position of the warehouse in various dimensions.
Then one is passes to analyze to the fact „Purchases subsequently to you“ and requirement of the supplies, through the fact „Deliveries“.
Figure. Outline of fact for the purchases
Its Possible to make one demanded of the acquired amount and the paid amount for it:
- in one particular week
- in one particular zone of demand
- in one particular zone of destination
- for one particular family of products
- with one particular type of confection
- and a particular one marks
The multidimensional model on relational systems is based on the so-called outline to star (star outline) and on its varying.
It is composed gives:
with of relations DT1…..DTn, calls dimension table, every one correspondent to one dimension. Every DTi is characterized from a primary key of and from with of attributes that describe to the dimensions of analysis and the various levels of aggregation
a relation FT, call fact table, that it imports the keys of all the dimension table. The primary key of FT is given from with of the external keys of the dimension table
The multidimensional vision is obtained executing the association (join) between fact table and the dimension table.
The dimension table they are not in third normal shape, since the contemporary presence of all the attributes of a hierarchy gives place to dependencies works them transitive. This produces redundancies, but determined information allows to diminish the number of associations to make in order to obtain one.
In case space was wanted to be saved on disc or to follow the theory of the normalization, would have to introduce new tables and to create therefore one outline to snowflake.
In this job the redundancy has been maintained maximum.
Figure. Star Outline „Lying“
Figure. Star Outline „Acquires“
Figure. Star Outline „Deliveries“
With the physical planning the choices completed are realized during are made of planning and the outline of the Datamart assumes its final shape.
In the first step of the physical planning the 2000 (MagazzinoVirtualeDataMart has been created database relational with SQL Server), to the same way of the created DataBase for MV (the MagazzinoVirtuale).
Once completed this passage, adopts a position database the relational MagazzinoVirtualeDataMart like source for the cubes on which carrying out the analysis through „Analysis the present Service „in the package of SQL Server 2000.
If the database it resides on Server SQL, then it must settarlo like origin give „Microsoft to you OLE DB Provider for SQL Server“.
This the result for the cube of the purchases
Ditto for that one of the supplyes.
The result, in practical will be constituted gives of the cubes that are possible to be annoying in real time, to various levels of aggregation, in the time, the space, the product and therefore via, supplying of turns out you of easy access with interfaces user-friendly.
This type of navigation is not other that the first step towards one navigation of gives to you more much been left over.
If in the truth it came adopted the Virtual Warehouse and it was proceeded seriously to the informatizations, the truth for OF would be decidedly various.
The scene puts into effect introduces them, as it has been looked at, an industrial truth that still proceed with traditional means, bureaucratic, discs of a valve, limited to you.
The result is that forgiveness the land to being left over of new total industrial truths, which those of the emergent countries, that they have of the competitive advantages you regarding the enterprises of the district.
It is not possible to face the total markets with old means.
Already the single „normalization“ of the codes trades them to district level would allow:
- an economic saving deriving from the elimination of the intermediaries, that the prices swell.
- an economic saving deriving from the effective reduction of the supplyes that come rationalized, because the anomaly would not be maintained to more than to have the same catalogued product n times to warehouse, with n different supplyes
- a saving of time and one simplification deriving from one remarkable reduction of the voices to warehouse
- consolidation of the occupied areas
If all this has a remarkable value to level of the single one to company, to figure itself on 400 district companies.
The adoption of the Virtual Warehouse would allow to obtain:
- an increase of the liquidity financial institution deriving from the lessening of the supplyes at least 20% (elimination of the supply of emergency) of the maintenance materials
- lessening of the warehouse costs, because little goods in warehouse is maintained
increase of the availability, because the MV allow to approach the goodses put to disposition from all the rest of the District, therefore would be possible to approach assets that never they would have been kept to warehouse, for cost reasons mainly
In case it was chosen to use the MV also like outsourcer of supplyings, that is affidargli the ordinary management of the refueling could be approached to ulterior advantages, which:
- buyer aggregation deriving from the fact that the outsourcer would take care of all the enterprises district and it could to carry out supplyings taking advantage of enormous economies of scale
- improvement of supplyings, because the quality of the supply would increase; in fact greater contractual weight of the outsourcer would be had regarding the small district enterprises
Cross-sectionally to these advantages those deriving from the reorganization of Sistemi Informed to you and from a serious and serene approach are placed towards the informatizations.
Today, for the insert of the MV, in order to improve the Management of the Acquaintance, in order to obtain a rework of the immense potentialities uncombines supplied from give you, must pass obligatorily for a upgrade of the Intradistrettuali Nets, that they guarantee an improvement of the communications to the inside of OF, and upgrade of the Intraziendale net.
That the applications are the CRM, the Business to Consumer, the Business to Business, the Datawarehousing or the Mining Date of they to the day today the company cannot make less if it wants to be effective and efficient in the own management.
It must know what they want the customers, to anticipate of really desires, also that more hidden; it must find new mass media with the customer; it must go beyond the situated Internet used like display window and render it active, independent, interesting, but above all profitable means and not one pure practice of computer science techniques; it must change the company, the way to mean give to you business, the inner information; it must anticipate the inner and external question.
But neither the Virtual Warehouse neither the informatizations will be possible if hand in way consisting to the business processes will not be put.
Every action that is only accessory, and integrated in an only plan of great breath would not be equivalent not to make null.
The Industrial Districts: Fundamental elements and Structures
Fundamental elements: R1 23
The tipology of District Enterprise: R1 17-18
The District Configurations R2 4-7
The organization of the production process R1 16
The Three Points R1 Hinge 18-22
The Industrial Field R1 18
The Choice of the Meant Internationalization and its New one
The Internationalization of the Markets: the R3 Threat Understood it „the new one sinificato of the internationalization“, „Various types of knowing“, „and the Districts“
From the Captive Market to that World-wide R3 Understood it „Various types of knowing“, „the possible evolution“
The Gap of the District Enterprises R1 61-78
The hypothesis of the Collaboration and the Sharing in order to exceed the Gap R1 73-74, R3 Understood it
„the possible evolution“
A First Step towards the District Net: the Virtual Warehouse
One Priority Necessity: To pull down the Costs R4 Xi-xii, R5, R4 1-26,136-144, 171-240
Impresa-Rete: Sharing of Assets and Information Remaining R6 Owners
The Advantages of the Virtual Warehouse R6
The New Management of the Acquaintance in the Districts
Premised the Acquaintance Exchanged in the R1 Districts 31-60
As the possible evolution Is changing to the Management of the Acquaintance in the Industrial Districts R1 47-60 R3 „“
The Possible Evolution: the New Management of the R1 Acquaintance 73-78
The Unfavorable factors to the new Management of the Acquaintance R7, R8
Planning of the Database for the Virtual Warehouse
To plan the Database R9 1-10, 163-168
The Conceptual Planning: The Model Entità-Relazioni R9 168-189, 197-219, R10
TheEntità-Relazioni Model for the Virtual Warehouse R6
A Problem To resolve R6
Logical Planning R9 227-270
the R9 Normalization 271-290
The Physical Planning R11
Motivations to the development of a model of Datawarehouse for the Industrial Districts
Premised the Business Reporting R12 10-11 puts into effect them, 16-26; R13
tipology new of reporting Business R12 16-26
Contained and characteristic of the new systems of Reporting R12 16-26
The Jump of Quality of the Business Intelligence regarding Traditional Sistemi of Management of the R12 Acquaintance 139-141; R14 4-5; R15 4
The potentialities of the Business Intelligence for the Districts R1 61 R16 R17
Vendor rating the R16
The Procurement R12, R18 89-105
The CRM R12, R18 141-170
Planning of the Datawarehouse for the Virtual Warehouse
Premised Chosen of the Architecture and the type. R19 1-45
The plan of the Datamart R19 45-59
Analyses and Reconciliation of the Sources of Give R19 to you 59-79
Analysis of Requirement R19 79-89, R6
Conceptual Planning R19 91-160
Logical Planning R19 197-218
Physical Planning R20
Witnesses of reference for the bibliography
R1 V. Albino, N. Carbonara, G. Schiuma, Relazioni interorganizzative e conoscenza nei Distretti industriali, 2000 DAPIT Ricerche (Università della Basilicata)
R2 N. Carbonara, Information and Communication Technologies and Geographical Clusters: Opportunities and diffusion
R3 ConsorzioAASTER, Rapporto sui principali Distretti Industriali Italiani per Confartigianato, 2001
R4 Modelli e Metodi per l’Organizzaione dei Sistemi Logistici, Ghiani Musmanno, Pitagora, 2000.
R5 www.unitec.it , slides per ERP, Unitec, Marino, 2002
R6 colloqui con Vincenzo Marino, lavori di tesi sul sito www.unitec.it, materiale informativo su www.magazzinovirtuale.it
R7 Federcomin, I Distretti Produttivi Digitali, 2001
R8 Federcomin, I Distretti Produttivi Digitali, 2002
R9 Atzeni, Ceri, Paraboschi, Basi di dati, seconda Edizione, McGraw-Hill, 1999
R10 E. Di Sciascio, Dispense per il corso di Sistemi Informativi, 2001, Politecnico di Bari
R11 Riordan, Microsoft SQL Server 2000, passo per passo, Microsoft, Mondadori 2001
R12 L.Falduto, Reporting aziendale e business intelligence, Giappichelli, 2002
R13 C.Ampollini-M.Samara, Come innovare il sistema di controllo di gestione, F.Angeli,1996
R14 V.Dhar-R.Stein, Seven Methods for transforming corporate data into Business Intelligence, Prentice Hall,1997
R15 http://dlab.cineca.it ,2002
R16 N. Carbonara, C. Garavelli, G. Lanzolla, The role of information and communication technology in client-supplier relationships within industrial districts: a knowledge-based approach, , Nov 2000, paper
R17 E.Vitt, M.Luckevich, S.Misner, Business Intelligence: Making better decision Faster, Microsoft Press 2002
R18 Kimball, Ross, The Datawarehouse Toolkit, Second Edition,2002, Wiley & sons.
R19 Golfarelli, Rizzi, Datawarehouse, teoria e pratica della progettazione, McGraw-Hill, 2002
R20 Jacobson, Microsoft SQL Server 2000 Analysis Service, passo per passo
V.Dhar-R.Stein, Seven Methods for transforming corporate data into Business Intelligence, Prentice Hall,1997.
Inmon, Building the Datawarehouse, Third Edition, Wiley & sons, 2001
Westerman, Datawarehousing, using the Wal-Mart Model, Academic Press, 2001
V. Di Bari, Dizionario dell’Economia Digitale, Il Sole 24 Ore, 2002
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