UNITEC co-autor of the “Dictionary of the Digital Economy” published by “Sole 24 Ore”
A large one has been made to speak in the last years of Internet and the so-called one “ new economy “.
Internet has ignited the enthusiasms with its new scent of epidemic and rivoluzionar it and many they have confused the bubble financial institution with the advent of one new economy.
But the laws of the economy do not change and the enterprises continue to pursue – as it is always happened – the creation of economic value.
Sure something is changed and the difference is perceived.
Internet and technologies ICT have changed the way to make enterprise, transforming it in with of more and more horizontal and connected activities, much more centered on the customer and its expectations, absolutely timelier and reactive to the change.
The enterprises have become extended — insiemi of companies that form an alliance in order to optimize it turns out to you operated to you, to create value and to achieve competitive advantage.
They can work to the unisono, with an only enterprise-net, because at this point technologies ICT concur it and more and more they will concur it in near future, that it is the future of the wide band and the wireless, of the multimediali applications for the enterprise, of the corporate TV and the multimediali points sale.
The true sense of the change is this. Not one new economy, but a strongly hauled economy from the new potentialities of instruments ICT, which has become impossible to make less: one net economy.
The task of a Dictionary is not to reflect flashing with lightning of a changing phenomenon, but storicizzare the existing, to pick of the durable elements and the evolutionary pushes. And that by means of along distance that passes for migliaia of terms and definitions, of distinctions and precisazioni. In so far as, a work was strongly the requirement dl that could index and to codify the new one that us has overthrown I lean headlong in the recent years. Indeed, that that of the new one is survivor to volatilizzarsi of the first enthusiasms and has become asset durable of the quotidianità of making an enterprise and the market.
A Dictionary is also – in deep a way to make order, sistematizzare in a new order the useful acquaintances and experiences, with one pragmatic look to the future.
This was the objective of the work: we have best pursued of our abilities, but also with it has serene conscience that a term negletto and a better definition will be perennially in ambush in our mind. Ready to jump outside to text only published: it is the maledizione of the dictionaries.
In this distance we have operated of the choices and had of the travel companions: I would want to render account you of first and rendering merit to the second ones.
The choices. We have decided to insert biographical voices dedicated to individuals that have considerably recorded in the evolution of the traditional economy to net economy; we have but rinunciato to many between those who they are currently in itinere, privileging who has been distinguished – even though for an only step – for to have achieved a storicizzabile result. Strategic choice has been one.
We have omitted all the Italians and this has been, instead one chosen tactical. The Dictionary enjoys in fact the characterized contribution of many of the Italian protagonists of the net economy: to dedicate they a lemma would be seemed piaggeria; of other part, whichever involuntary omission of those who has not collaborated would have seemed acrimony fruit. Ergo, no Italian. Salomonico, but effective.
We have dedicated much space to the evolutionary tendencies. As an example, to the wide band and the wireless, innovative applications ICT, the trend of marketing and communication for the enterprise. We have moreover omitted to cite, or dealt only succintamente, some phenomena (or applications, or trend, or companies) that also they have enjoyed recent happening, but have then had to yield the step when one is enters to you in the phase of maturity of the net economy. Every chosen it has been operated in good faith, but – like all the decisions – risente of autorale soggettività.
The travel companions. I have left for last this famous one because me she is much beloved.
The group centers is constituted them from my team of search: a some thirty of phenomenal young people prophets of the evolution of the times that assist to me in the quotidianità of the university life, search and plan. They have demonstrated a tenacity and a puntigliosità of other times in certosino the job of I distinguish and the puntualizzazioni and in the obstinate perseguimento, for every possible doubt or question, of the best one of the answers. Without this square and its enthusiasm the Dictionary would not badly have seen the light.
But the accuracy is a little striking dress (like often happens to the real values), remains on the background and very spouse with the vivacità of pennellate of author for being valued. And NATO cosi the idea to invite to the athletic contest the testimonial of excellence of the Italian scene: in order to assign them more meaningful and controversial voices to they of the Dictionary and to have of in gift qualified deepenings. The surrounding crown (the extensive team or the team-net, if cosi aggrada to call it to you) is constituted gives beyond centoventi between the more authoritative voices of the economy of net in Italy. They are mostly friends who have shared with me the querelle, vaticini and the surprise of the way that in these recent years has carried to us to the changed scene odierno and that they have accepted to help in this challenge of reordering the existing me. But they are also studious and professionals who I only knew from the reading of the daily paper and that they have concurred to contribute to the writing of this Dictionary, crediting some the contents with participations of pregio.
These participations constitute a book in the book, than same I have read with immense I appeal to learning from every testimony something of new. Since auspico that the same thing happens to all the readers, you concur a leave suggestion to me: leaf through the Dictionary to the search of centotrentacinque the testimonies (have been clearly evidenced on the external margin of the pages) and you read those that to more they interest you like if they were the understood one them of a book on the net economy. Then riponete also the dictionary in a drawer, in attended of the occasion in order to consult it.
Because it is this – in bottom – the trade of a Dictionary: to sit down in park bench, but makes to find ready to the contest when the trainer sends to you in field.
The Virtual Warehouse
Virtual Warehouse transformation of the fisicità of a group of logistic information shared and co-ordinate cooperation of industrial economic actors concentrates to you in a defined territorial area.
The transformation of an object from “virtual” physicist “in and the ritrasformazione from “virtual” to “physicist”, that it can make to think next to the fantascientifica invention of the teletrasporto, in truth are a product of hi-tech the already available today. The developments of the communications and the computer science net are in effects the ingredients that allow this metamorphosis. Virtual warehouse (MV) is in use that can be made of these possible transformations. It is the physical state of the objects is their virtual state are represents MV to you for which we can define the MV a physicist-computer science hybrid. Examples represented you of the use of the virtualizzazione have been brought back from the economist Jeremy Rifkin in its book The Age of Access (2000); while the economic impact of the virtual warehouse on the system of services and production can be estimated on the base of they give to you brought back in the book industrial Districts and technologies of net: to plan convergence (2000), and in particular in the test “the logistics like organizational infrastructure of the global economy” of Giancarlo Corò .
The sharing of information, possible yield from the net technologies, allows the rationalization of the management of the physically present supplyes in the business warehouses. The supplyes are reduced physically, and consequently it diminishes the immobilized understood one them; the abolished quota is replaced from the information on the availability in terms of times and amount. The availability total is given from the sum of the members rendered available from the Customers of the virtual warehouse on the same territory.
The ingegnerizzazione of the MV is based on the principle of the “esclusione of the used contemporaneità “in the planning of complex systems; in other words, one excludes statistically that the same member goes in damage in the same moment in two different areas of the system. An example is the spare wheel: we hold some even if the car has four, that is excludes the possibility to pierce more wheels at the same time. The mathematical theories that assure the applicabilità of MV in the within of the management of the territory occupied from an economic district are relatively simple and the planning and applicabilità are calculable with riassumibili mathematician-statistical methods in the frequentista definition and the “ascertainment empiricist by means of reasonings of simmetria” of Laplace . The interactions between the operating economic on the defined territory are imaginable as insiemi and representable with the diagrams of Venn, on which take place noticeable inferences with the application of the theorem of Bayes.
It is important to observe that these inferences induce to the institution of one or more MV in one territory, with an effect of logistic improvement economic recursivo for all the economic district that it is involved. Some cases of application reveal the potentialities of the virtual warehouse.
- Virtual Hospital. The MV, applied to one district hospital worker of a city with three distant hospitals between they approximately twenty minuteren, allow to optimize the warehouses of the single hospitals in how much:
- every single warehouse is reduced of 33%
- the MV have an equal content to 3 x 67% = 201%
- the availability for every hospital is 67% in native place + 134% to 20 minuteren from the demand.
The district hospital worker in this way saves the equivalent of one warehouse 3 x 33% but the availability to 201% (67% in native place + 134% in MV doubles).
- Cooled virtual warehouse. As in the Virtual Hospital the MV can be used in order to rationalize the exercise of the warehouses cools to you uses you in some processes of the chain of transformation of the food industry. In the case of the agricultural production (citruses etc.) the virtualizzazione of the cooled cubic meter allows a optimization of uses of the resources available for the maintenance of the harvests until the moment of the transformation in alimony. This ring of the production process is also one of most expensive. The optimization and the consequent cost reduction throw again the competitiveness and the consumptions (in some agricultural areas of our country in a beam of 50 km are present some hundreds of warehouses cool to you).
- Virtual warehouse of industrial district. The considerations made in the two previous examples can be brought back with happening in à the industrial districts (approximately 200 in Italy). The obtainable economies would be of great impact on all the chain of the national value.
(the system and the exercise of a virtual warehouse are outline to you in the figure.)
The companies participants transmit to the manager of the MV the information of the contents of the business warehouse that wish to share in the district and the manager generates a MV who contains the descriptions of the materials, the amount available and the times of supplying. The enterprises can consequently reorganize their supplyes in function of the availability of the MV and the operating necessities. The definition of the supplyes is calculated in function of the habits and from the necessity of consumption of the customers, the territorial physical distribution and, not last, the practicability. The resupplies, their frequency and their entity, before being standardize to you, they are analyzes and rapportati to principle 80/20 of Pareto/Juran.
( Vilfredo Pareto , economist and Italian sociologist, enunciated the principle resumed in years Fifty in USA from Joseph Moses Juran, that it proposed an innovative “ Controlling System “, but without great consents; instead, it had happened in Japan teaching to the manager. The rest is history.) The participants can anytime demand online the delivery of materials. The manager of the MV supplies to i withdrawals of money and the deliveries in the within of the territory of its competence let alone to the resupplies. They are possible interscambi with virtual warehouses of other districts. In the MV the redundancies are standardized and the recycle obsolescences, the warehouse spin increases, the availability is multiplied. The warehouses of the enterprises participants are transformed from pass to you in assets and the entrepreneurs can choose if to invest in supplyes or services. To participate to a virtual warehouse, moreover, allows of:
- to eliminate the overhead managerial;
- to adapt the costs to the business conjunctural course;
- to take advantage itself of synergies negotiates them and organizational;
- to have use of of scale reductions in price multiplies to you in function of the great volumes of purchase generates to you;
- to guarantee one better reperibilità of the supplies with an elevation of the qualitative standards you;
- to diminish the structure costs;
- to safeguard the atmosphere reducing the traffic generated from transports of along distance.
The virtual warehouse is today realizable to low cost for the PMI with the aid of Internet. Its application is possible ovunque and represents an other step towards the net economy.
Standard Management of the innovation and the multimediali plans for the enterprise to the Polytechnic of Milan. He is Scientific Director of Net 141, laboratory of search on the innovative communication for the enterprise. And state Executive Director of the Internatonal Multimedia Institute of the Unesco and Executive Vice President of network television American SPN. For the Sun 24 HOURS it has published Technologies of communication for the enterprise. Strategies and solutions in order to support the business performance (1999) and multimediale Management (2000).
Silvia Borsari, Alessandro Carnelli Alessandro Cavana, Andrea Fiorani, Andrea Grassi, Alberto Guerrini, Marco Maroni, Patrizia Mattavelli, Diego Molina, Mario Palumbo, Anita Penati, Carlo Prevosti, Elena Ravasi, Riccardo Reati, Marco Scalvini, Rodolfo Valacca, Dario Vergottini.
Pietro Luca Agostini (Università Cattolica, Milano), Nicola Aliperti(Didasco), Paolo Anselmo(IBAN), Giovanni Azzone (Politecnico di Milano), Marco Banfi (Yoda), Marco Barbuti (Postecom), Franco Bernabè (Franco Bernabè Group), Edoardo Bernardi (Estèe Lauder), Brunello Bianchi (Giorgio Armani), Pier Angelo Biga (BNL Direzione e-services), Francesca Bodini (NetBusiness), Marzio Bonferroni (Rapp Collins), Paolo Bordogna (Sapienza Italia), Mario Boselli (Camera Nazionale della Moda), Andrea Bressani (Fundsworld), Alessandro Bufacchi (ENEL), Francesco Canale (Bang & Olufsen), Costantino Caroppo (Matrix), Gianroberto Casaleggio (Webegg), Andrea Casalini (Buongiorno.it), Michele Casucci (Lycos Italia), Ugo Celestino (eBay Italia), Giuseppe Cerbone (Agenzia ANSA), Nicola Chessa (SDA Bocconi, Milano), Roberto Cicciomessere (Agorà Telematica), Innocenzo Cipolletta (Marzotto), Francesco Ciuccarelli (Steeltrading.com), Daniela Concari (On Banca), Adrio De Carolis (Inferentia DNM), Maurizio Dècina (Cefriel), Gian Carlo Delsante (Getronics), Achille De Tommaso (Colt Telecom), Enrico Devitini (Ediphone), Mauro Dognini (BNP Paribas), Ennio Doris (Mediolanum), Gabriele Faggioli (Studio Legale Tamburrini Savi & Associati), Giuseppe Falconieri (Starhotels), Oberdan Ferrari (Cdbox.it), Federico Fiaschi (Consodata), Antonio Findanno (UPS), Luciano Floridi (Oxford University), Antonio Fraccari (ABB Solutions), Monica Frigento (Jupiter MMXI), Stefano Funari (SDA Bocconi, Milano), Roberto Galimberti (Etnoteam), Enrico Gasperini (Inferentia DNM), Riccardo Gay (Riccardo Gay Model Management), Eric Gerritsen (Burson Marsteller), Pasquale Giamboi (UniCredito Italiano), Marco Giorgino (Politecnico di Milano), Vittorio Giulini (Sistema Moda Italia), Susanna Guarnerio (Sapient Italia), Alberto Guerrini (Reply), Fabio Guidetti (Victoria Grantham), Pietro Guindani (Omnitel), Franco Guzzi (Cohn & Wolfe), Gianfranco Imperato (Steeltrading.com), Daniele Inneguale (Didascoweb), Concetta Lanciaux Carestia (LVMH), Ubaldo Livolsi (Livolsi & Partners), Lorenzo Locatelli ( Weber Shandwick Italia), Sergio Luciano (ilNuovo.it), Paolo Magrassi (Gartner Italia), Marco Maiocchi (I.Net), Joy Marino (I.Net), Vincenzo Marino (Unitec D High Tech Industrieprodukte Vertriebs GmbH), Victor Massiah (Intesa e.lab), Flavio Miglioli (Xelion), Valerio Minero (Getronics), Giuseppe Miroglio (Gruppo Miroglio), Salvo Mizzi (my-tv), Cipriano Moneta (Jobpilot Italia), Marcello Montanari (Livolsi & Partners), Claudio Monte (MC Consulting), Franco Morganti (ANFoV), Lucia Morselli (Stream), Toni Muzi Falconi (Methodos), Edoardo Narduzzi (NETikos), Luca Negri (Pirelli), Gianluca Nicoletti (Rainet), Andrea Ordanini (I-Lab Bocconi, Milano), Andrea Pagliari (SDA Bocconi, Milano), Paolo Penati (Blockbuster Italia), Giuseppe Perrone (Agip Petroli), Massimo Pettiti (H3G), Elserino Piol (Pino Venture Partners), Barbara Poggiali (e.Biscom), Guido Poli (McCann Erickson), Vincenzo Portaluri (FastBuyer), Emilio Pucci (e-media), Stefano Quintarelli (I.Net), Federico Rampolla (Onetone Consulting), Elena Ravasi (Net 141), Fabio Riveruzzi (Universal Music Italia), Edoardo Rovida (Politecnico di Milano), Ivano Sacchetti (Unipol Assicurazioni), Andrea Samaja (PricewaterhouseCoopers), Stefano Santucci (Elitel), Mario Sassi (Standa Commerciale), Mauro Sentinelli (TIM), Giacomo Silvestri (SDA Bocconi, Milano), Claudio Sordi (FS), Lucio Stanca (Ministro per l’Innovazione e le Tecnologie), Pietro Tamburrini (Studio Legale Tamburrini Savi & Associati), Franco Tatò (ENEL), Massimiliano Tedeschi (Web2B), Leonardo Tesi (Banca Profilo), Chicco Testa (ENEL), Gadiel Toaff (Enichem), Paolo Tomei (Paolo Tomei Models), Francesco Trapani (Bulgari), Alberto Tripi (Federcomin), Francesco Trussardi (Trussardi), Rodolfo Valacca (Net 141), Roberto Vannini (TIM), Giuliano Venturi (EdisonTel), Roberto Verganti (Politecnico di Milano), Mauro Viacava (Merloni Elettrodomestici), Enrico Vitiello (Confindustria), Ugo Volli (Università di Torino).