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  • Absolute shaft encoder

    Shaft encoder that transmits unique coded data for each increment.

  • AC [~]

    Alternating current

  • Accuracy

    The difference between the actual and measured position.

  • Actual value

    see count

  • Alarm signal

    Serves to monitor the shaft encoder for malfunctions, such as glass breakage, fouling, short circuit, short circuit of signal line, and supply voltage too low.

  • Analogue signal

    A signal whose level alters continuously.

  • ASIC

    Application specific integrated circuit

  • Asincrona

    Nella comunicazione asincrona il ricevente può rispondere ad messaggio in tempi differenti.

  • Auto-reset

    see reset modes; automatic reset

  • Automatic repetition

    see reset modes; automatic reset

  • Axial loading

    Maximum load on the shaft encoder’s shaft in the axial direction

  • Bandwidth

    Frequency range for output signals

  • Batch counter

    Registers the number of signals released at the main output. In counters with automatic repetition, the number of repeated cycles is counted. (See also operating mode)

  • Baud rate

    Rate of data transfer (bits per second).

  • BCD

    Binary-coded decimal; binary representation of a decimal number.

  • Binary

    Two logical states (yes/no); the basis of binary data-processing systems.

  • Binary code

    Code using binary numbering; often used for absolute measuring systems.

  • Bit

    Abbreviation for “binary digit”; the smallest unit of information of a binary system, whose value can be 1 or 0 (yes-or-no decision).

  • Bus

    System for communication between several devices via a data line (see interface)

  • Bus cycle

    Time needed for polling every bus slave by the bus master.

  • Byte

    Sequence of 8 bits.

  • CAL

    Can application layer

  • CANopen

    Layer 7 protocol based on CAN

  • Change of state

    For CAN: Bus node (encoder) sends it’s data automatically when a position change occurs.

  • Channel

    Signal track on which 1 or 0 is outputted.

  • CiA

    CAN in automation (CAN users and manufacturers group)

  • CiA DS

    CAN in automation draft standard, communication profile

  • CiA DSP

    CAN in automation draft standard proposal, communication profile

  • CIM

    Computer Integrated Manufacturing; i. e. the linking of different computer-aided processes in production and related fields for general use of the data.

  • CMD

    Software tool for configuration and diagnosis of Interbus networks

  • COB

    Communication object

  • Code

    Format in which data are transmitted.

  • Code switching frequency

    Number of position steps per second. For absolute shaft encoders with parallel interface: The maximum output frequency of the LSB output driver (fmax) also limits the maximum permissible code switching frequency: Code switching frequency max. = 2 · fmax for Binary code Code switching frequency max. = 4 · fmax for Gray code

  • Coefficient of thermal expansion

    Material expansion under influence of temperature change [µm/°K m], relevant for linear scales.

  • Coincidence

    Accordance of set value (preset) and actual value (count)

  • Coincidence mode

    See operating mode

  • Compensazione

    Tale teoria esprime la tesi centrale del pensiero neoclassico riguardo gli effetti del progresso tecnico sull’occupazione.
    Gli esponenti di questo filone di pensiero la tratteranno e svilupperanno compiutamente.
    Riteniamo dunque più opportuno rinviarne la trattazione nel sottoparagrafo 1.2.1.

  • Complementary

    Output circuit for which also the inverted signals are outputted (e.g. Channel A and Channel A). Electrically, the 1/0 levels are transmitted as voltage differences between two lines. In this way the information signal (the difference) remains pure as in general interferences are interspersed equally on both lines.

  • Connection box

    In modular system 400 (plug-in type counters), the term “connection box” is used for the insert socket of the counter (see, for example, the totalizing counter in the modular system).

  • COR

    Count correction

  • Count

    Display of counted value (actual value) at the counter.

  • Count correction

    Correction of count; correction is not stored.

  • Count input
    • Differential
      For adding, subtracting or differential count. The counter is equipped with a subtracting and an adding input.
    • Count direction
      For adding, subtracting or differential count. The counter is equipped with a count input and a counter advance sense input.
    • Phase discriminator
      For forward/backward counting. The counter is equipped with a 2-channel input. Signals are phase-shifted by 90° to allow counter to recognize count advance sense automatically. The count input can be programmed for single, double or 4-foldevaluation.
  • Counter advance sense input

    See count input

  • Counter advance sense signal

    Output signal of the counter; can be used independently of counter advance sense for control purposes (e.g. drive unit control). The counter advance sense signal operates independently of OUT signal status.

  • Counting frequency [f]

    Number of count pulses per second [Hz] In pneumatic counters, the non-pulse period must be long enough to allow pressure to drop to approx. 0.15 bar for a minimum of approx. 12 ms.
    Approximately 12 pulses/s are reached in a pressure range of 6 bar and at an ambient temperature of 20 °C.
    Increasing flow or length of tubing reduces maximum possible counting rate and thus also warming.

  • Counting mode

    In mechanical counters only: (+) adding in the specified sense of rotation + (–) adding in the specified sense of rotation; subtracting in the reverse direction + (+) adding in both senses of rotation – (–) subtracting in the specified sense of rotation; adding in the reverse direction

  • Counting rate

    See count frequency

  • CRC

    Cyclic redundancy check. Bit error protection method for data communication.

  • CSA approval

    Approval by the Canadian Standards Association

  • Data bus

    System of lines over which data are transferred electronically in parallel or serially.

  • Data consistency

    Intrinsic coherence of data in respect of timing and logical aspects.

  • Data integrity

    Correspondence of data with the reality that they describe.

  • Datavalid

    Output for checking the validity of data.

  • DC

    Direct current (not alternating)

  • DC [=] (Counter)

    DC [=] Direct current

  • Decimal point

    Can be programmed in electronic counters

  • Demodulator

    Device that filters the original information out of an altered signal again.

  • DeviceNet – conformity and interoperability

    Confirmation of agreement of a bus node with the DeviceNet specifications and correct interoperability with other DeviceNet nodes.

  • Differential input

    See count input

  • Differential line driver

    Output circuit in which the difference between the two signals A and A is evaluated, thus providing high signal transmission reliability.

  • DIN

    Deutsche Industrie Norm (German Industrial Standard)

  • DIR

    Direction; see counter advance sense

  • Direction

    Control input for determining the data sequence (whether ascending for clockwise or counterclockwise rotation).

  • Disable

    Blocking of function (see also inhibit)

  • Display


  • Display memory

    A display value is “frozen” during counting (for easier reading during fast counts)

  • Dual Code

    Natural binary code

  • Duty cycle [ED]

    Ratio of pulse length to non-pulse period; at 40 % duty cycle, pulse length is 4/10 and non-pulse period 6/10 of total time (see specifications in technical data).

  • Dynamic behaviour

    A function is triggered by a pulse (the pulse edge only is evaluated) at the corresponding dynamic input; the counter continues operation regardless of pulse width.

  • E/P converter

    Preset counter with electrical count input and pneumatic control signal generation (see pneumatic preset counter)

  • ED

    See duty cycle

  • EDS – File

    Electronic data sheet. This is a file with the device specific parameter description and is provided by the manufacturer of a DeviceNet or CANopen device.


    “Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory” chip (see EPROM).

  • EIA

    Electonic Industries Association; U.S. umbrella organization of manufacturers of electronic equipment and facilities. It is responsible for maintenance and development of the industrial standards for interfaces between data-processing devices and data communications equipment.

  • Elapsed-time meter

    See time counter

  • EMC

    Electromagnetic compatibility

  • EMC (Counter)

    Electromagnetic compatibility; see interference immunity

  • Enable

    Control input via which the data outputs can be activated.

  • Encoder

    See “shaft encoder”

  • Encoder monitoring

    See “Alarm signal”

  • Encoder power

    Supply voltage to be provided for the shaft encoder.


    User group of manufacturers of INTERBUS-S absolute shaft encoders


    “Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory” chip, which can be erased with ultraviolet light, after which new data can be written into it.

  • Extranet

    La diversità sostanziale tra Internet, Extranet ed Intranet, può essere vista attraverso il diverso grado di accessibilità. Internet è raggiungibile da qualsiasi personal computer allacciato alla linea telefonica tramite un modem e dotato dell’apposito programma (browser). Extranet ed Intranet, pur sfruttando la stessa tecnologia informatica, sono “chiusi”, in quanto creati appositamente per collegare via telematica rispettivamente due o più imprese, e i reparti della stessa impresa; si tratta, quindi, di “reti” non accessibili dall’esterno.

  • Gate

    See inhibit

  • General Electric

    MANDELLI Andreina, in
    “Fare business in rete”, McGraw Hill 1998

  • Gray code

    A special binary code that changes only one data bit per measuring step at a time. It is used with absol

  • Hamming distance

    Measure for data security in a data transmission. The higher the number the better the ability to detect

  • Harmonic Distortion

    Measure for the signal quality of sinewave encoder [%]. It describes the content of harmonics in analogue signals. The lower the number the better the signal.

  • Hysteresis error

    Measurement deviation for a position approached from opposite directions

  • Identifier

    Address of a message in a CAN network.

  • IEC

    International Electrotechnical Commission; organization promoting international standardization of electrical components.

  • Immunity to interference

    Test procedure according to IEC 801, Part 4 – A test of susceptibility to fast electrical transients (bursts) causing interference on lines. The test values are divided into 5 levels:
    Level Mains line Data and control lines
    1 0.5 kV 0.25 kV
    2 1.0 kV 0.5 kV
    3 2.0 kV 1.0 kV
    4 4.0 kV 2.0 kV
    X special special

  • Immunity to interference (continued)
    • Test procedure according to IEC 801, Part 2 Discharge of static electricity on the surface and in the surroundings of the specimen. The test values are divided into 4 classes:
      Class test voltage
      1 2 kV
      2 4 kV
      3 8 kV
      4 15 kV
    • Radio interference voltage test to VDE 0871.
  • Increment mode

    See operating mode

  • Incremental measuring system

    Measuring method in which the variable is formed by counting increments (measuring steps).

  • Incremental shaft encoder

    Shaft encoder which transmits an electrical signal (yes/no) for each increment, determined by the marked disc.

  • INH

    Inhibit; see inhibit

  • Inhibit

    Blocking of counter input during counting operation.

  • Input

    Count input

  • Inspection certificate

    All Hengstler products are subjected to strict quality inspection, the results of which can be attested by an inspection certificate according to DIN 55 350-18-4.1.1.

  • Integer

    Integral values; range of values at n bit: 0 … (2n-1)

  • Integrated coupling

    Flexible coupling built into shaft encoders

  • Intelligent agent

    Un intelligent agent, o agente software, è un programma di supporto alla ricerca ed alla selezione di informazioni on-line, che tiene in considerazione lo specifico profilo dell’utente.
    Raccogliendo ed elaborando informazioni sulla base delle specifiche dettate dal consumatore, può, ad esempio, visitare alcuni siti che offrono il prodotto ricercato on-line, prospettando all’utente il prodotto “migliore” in base ad alcuni parametri, posti come rilevanti.


    Real time bus for the sensor-actor-level

  • Interbus-Loop

    Two wire version of Interbus, transmitting data over the power supply lines and using Phoenix Contact “Quickon” cable plugs.

  • Interface

    Transfer point with certain terminals, signals, or signal sequences. The interface serves for communication of the shaft encoder with other systems.

  • Interface (Counter)

    The interface is used for communication between counter and external systems. Counter values can be input or output via the interface.

  • Interference immunity

    Testing procedure according to IEC 801 Section 4

    • Test for interference immunity against bursts (coupling to lines)
      The test values are divided into 5 steps: Stage Power lines Data and control lines
      1 0.5 kV 0.25 kV
      2 1.0 kV 0.5 kV
      3 2.0 kV 1.0 kV
      4 4.0 kV 2.0 kV
      X special special

    Test procedure according to IEC 801, Section 2

    • Electrostatic discharge on the surface and surroundings of the test object.
      The test values are divided into 4 classes:
      Class Test voltage
      1 2 kV
      2 4 kV
      3 8 kV
      4 15 kV
    • Radio interference according to VDE 0871
  • Internet

    La diversità sostanziale tra Internet, Extranet ed Intranet, può essere vista attraverso il diverso grado di accessibilità. Internet è raggiungibile da qualsiasi personal computer allacciato alla linea telefonica tramite un modem e dotato dell’apposito programma (browser). Extranet ed Intranet, pur sfruttando la stessa tecnologia informatica, sono “chiusi”, in quanto creati appositamente per collegare via telematica rispettivamente due o più imprese, e i reparti della stessa impresa; si tratta, quindi, di “reti” non accessibili dall’esterno.

  • Interpolation

    Scanning of a sinewave signal to increase resolution by generating intermediate position values.

  • Intranet

    La diversità sostanziale tra Internet, Extranet ed Intranet, può essere vista attraverso il diverso grado di accessibilità. Internet è raggiungibile da qualsiasi personal computer allacciato alla linea telefonica tramite un modem e dotato dell’apposito programma (browser). Extranet ed Intranet, pur sfruttando la stessa tecnologia informatica, sono “chiusi”, in quanto creati appositamente per collegare via telematica rispettivamente due o più imprese, e i reparti della stessa impresa; si tratta, quindi, di “reti” non accessibili dall’esterno.

  • IP

    See “Protection class”

  • Jitter

    Change in the phase angle between Channel A and B within one revolution (360°).

  • Key reset

    The reset button can be operated only by means of a key.

  • Keylock

    Blocking of certain keyboard inputs

  • Kosiur

    KOSIUR S. in “Understating Electronic Commerce”, 1997, da “Il Commercio elettronico” di SCOTT W.G. , Isedi, 1999 pp. 11

  • Latch

    Control input for storing (“freezing”) the data before they are read out.

  • LCD

    Liquid Crystal Display; passive display requiring external light or backlighting to be read

  • LED

    Light Emitting Diode; active display lighting up as long as supply voltage is fed to the counter

  • Line driver

    Output circuit that makes a larger current possible.

  • Linearity

    Deviation of the reading from the actual value within one revolution (360°).

  • LSB

    Least Significant Bit

  • Measuring wheel

    A wheel that, mounted on a shaft encoder, converts a linear motion into a rotary motion.

  • mercantilista

    L’espressione “mercantilista” fu utilizzata per la prima volta da Adam Smith per indicare la politica protezionista degli Stati europei del 1700.
    I mercantilisti erano un insieme eterogeneo di autori vissuti tra il XVI ed il XVIII secolo; molti di loro ricoprirono ruoli nella vita pubblica dei loro rispettivi paesi.

  • MOD

    See operating mode

  • Monostable signal

    Signal is active for a defined period.

  • MSB

    Most Significant Bit

  • MTBF

    “Mean Time Between Failures”, a measure of average service life.

  • Multi-turn shaft encoder

    Shaft encoder which transmits the number of shaft revolutions as well as the angular position of the shaft.

  • NC

    Not connected; designates unassigned connections in connection diagrams.

  • NC machinery

    Numerically Controlled machinery; their movements are programmed.

  • NPN input/output

    Transistor input/output circuit implemented with an npn transistor, and thus negative switching.

  • NV memory

    Non-volatile; electronic non-volatile memory for electronic counters for value retention in case supply voltage is interrupt

  • Offset

    For programmable absolute shaft encoders: the offset value is added to the value of physical position. As a result you get a relative shift of the output value (output value = position value + offset value).

  • Open collector

    The collector of the output transistor is not terminated (i.e. open)

  • Operating mode

    Programming the counter functions for a specific application.

    • Range mode: In this mode, the output signals are activated within the set range.
    • Increment mode: After a preset value is reached, the corresponding signal is released and the counter jumps directly to the next preset value (without reset). (See also program mode)
    • Coincidence mode: The output signals are activated each time the count and preset value coincide (coincidence), regardless of counter advance sense.
    • Program mode: The preset values are processed one after the other independently of their setting value. The counter recognizes preset value 2 only after preset value 1 has been reached.
    • Reset mode: After a preset value has been reached, the corresponding output signal is released, and the counter is reset to its initial value; thus the next preset value is always processed starting from the initial value.
    • Set mode: Resetting of counter to the programmed main preset value.Standard programming for subtracting count.
  • OUT

    Output (preset, zero signal, etc.)

  • Outsourcing

    Outsourcing è un termine inglese (composto da outside e resourcing), per il quale non esiste una parola italiana corrispondente e che, in prima approssimazione, sta ad indicare l’utilizzo di risorse esterne per lo svolgimento di determinate attività, le quali sono state tradizionalmente gestite tramite risorse e personale interno.

  • Overflow indicator

    When maximum display capacity has been exceeded, this is indicated by the corresponding code in the display of the counter. Deleted by a reset command.

  • P.L.C.

    Programmable Logic Controller: control system whose program is stored in a program memory and can be changed.

  • P/E converter

    Preset counter with pneumatic count input and electrical control signal generation (see pneumatic preset c

  • Panel frame

    Module frame for a counter

  • Parallel interface

    Transfer point at which the data are transferred in parallel over several lines.

  • Parity

    Checkbit for error detection in data transfer

  • PDO

    Process data object (in CAN networks)

  • Period measurement

    Time measurement; the time is measured for the duration of one period (pulse + separation). The display is updated in cycles.

  • Phase discriminator

    Sense-of-direction detector that functions by evaluating the phase angle between Signal A and Signal B.

  • Phase discriminator (Counter)

    See count input

  • Phase tolerance

    Deviation of the pulse-edge from Channel A to B, relative to the phase angle 90°.

  • Pilot signal

    An output signal released before the main preset value is entered according to the setpilot signal value.

  • PNP input/output

    Transistor input/output circuit implemented with a pnp transistor, and thus positive switching.

  • Position indicators

    Processing of angular and path information, thus allowing position to be determined; no control outputs.

  • Power-up reset

    See reset modes

  • Prescaler

    The factor by which the incoming pulses in the counter are multiplied. Used when theincoming count pulse does not correspond to the desired display unit, e.g. length measurement with an existing roller mechanism and standard pulse generator.

  • Preset

    For programmable absolute shaft encoders: The programmed numerical value is accepted as output value (output value = preset value).

  • Preset counter

    Preset counters are counters with control functions, e.g. shutting down a machine after a certain number of pieces has been produced.

  • Preset value

    Setting value (a set value); a signal is released when this value corresponds with the counted value.

  • Program reset

    Count reset with simultaneous program reset.

  • Protection class
    • The enclosure class is designated according to DIN 40050, by IP and a two-figure code number.
      1st digit Degree of protection against ingress of solid bodies:
      0 no special protection
      1 solid bodies with dia. > 50 mm, no protection against intentional penetration
      2 solid bodies with dia. > 12 mm, warding off fingers etc.
      3 solid bodies with dia. > 2.5 mm, warding off tools, wires, etc. (thickness > 2.5 mm)
      4 solid bodies with dia. > 1 mm, warding off tools, wires, etc. (thickness > 1 mm)
      5 dust in harmful quantities, complete shock-hazard protection
      6 dust (dust-tight), complete shock-hazard protection
    • 2nd digit Degree of protection against water
      0 no special protection
      1 water dripping vertically
      2 water dripping at angles up to 15° from vertical
      3 water dripping at angles up to 60° from vertical (spraying water)
      4 water from all directions (splashing water)
      5 water from a nozzle from all directions (hose-water)
      6 heavy seas or strong jet of water (flooding)
      7 water, if the device is immersed in water under specified conditions of pressure and time (immersion)
      8 water, if the device is submerged constantly. The manufacturer must describe the conditions (submersion)

    (For numbers 1 to 8, water must not penetrate in harmful quantities.)
    Example: IP 65 A device thus designated is dust-tight, and protected against hose-water.

  • Protection class (Counter)

    Designated with IP (international protection) and a 2-digit number according to DIN 40050

    • 1st digit
      Degree of protection against penetration by solid bodies:
      0 no special protection provided
      1 solid bodies of > 50 mm; no protection against intentional access
      2 solid bodies of > 12 mm; fingers, etc. cannot be inserted
      3 solid bodies of > 2.5 mm; tools, wires, etc. (thickness > 2.5 mm) cannot be inserted
      4 solid bodies of > 1 mm; tools, wires, etc. (thickness > 1 mm) cannot be inserted
      5 dust in harmful quantities; complete protection against contact
      6 dust (dustproof); complete protection against contact
    • 2nd digit
      Degree of protection penetration by water
      0 no special protection provided
      1 water dripping vertically
      2 water dripping up to 15° from the vertical
      3 water dripping up to 60° from the vertical (spray)
      4 water from all directions (splashing)
      5 water jet projected from a nozzle, from all directions (jet spray)
      6 heavy seas or powerful water jet (flooding)
      7 immersion in water under a defined pressure and period of time (immersion)
      8 submersion in water indefinitely. Conditions to be described by the manufacturer (submersion) (water shall not penetrate unit in critical amounts under conditions 1-8)
      Example: IP54 A unit with this designation is protected against the penetration of dust in harmful quantities and against splashing water
  • PSC

    See prescaler

  • PTB approval

    Approval for use by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, the German government materials testing institute.

  • PTB approval (Counters)

    Approval by the Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt (appropriateness for verification)

  • Pulse (repetition) frequency, max.

    The maximum signal frequency achievable by the shaft encoder, the product of rotary speed and number of markings.

  • Pulse frequency

    See counting frequency

  • Pulse generation
    • for electromechanical AC counters
      An AC counter can be operated directly with mains voltage. Attention! If the counter coil lies parallel to a chain of contactors which are supplied by a common isolation transformer (VDE regulations), extremely high voltage peaks result which reach several kV capable of destroying the counter coil. In this case, we recommend operating the counter with 24 VAC via a separate transformer.
    • for electromechanical DC counters fed by battery voltage up to 25 pulses
  • Pulse generator

    Correct counting results depend to a large extent on the appropriate choice of pulse generator. In mechanical pulse generators, bounce contact of > 3 ms should not occur, as miscounts will otherwise be registered. For counting rates of up to 10 Hz, microswitches, limit switches, limit switches or cam-actuated sets of contact springs are suitable; for counting rates of up to 30 Hz, miniature relays can be used. The use of electronic pulse generators (proximity switches, light barriers, shaft encoders, etc.) is recommended for counting rates higher than 30 Hz.

  • Pulse scaler

    A component which generates an output pulse after a specified number of input pulses. Used whenever the incoming count pulse does not correspond to the desired unit of display.

  • Pulse width measurement

    Time measurement; the duration of a pulse is registered and displayed when the pulse is ended until this value is updated.

  • Pulse-weighting factor

    See prescaler

  • PVC

    Polyvinylchloride; plastic coating of device cable

  • Quickon

    Connector with self contacting cable cutting contacts from Phoenix Contact used with Interbus Loop

  • Radial load, max.

    Maximum loading of shaft encoder shaft in radial direction.

  • RAM

    “Random Access Memory” chip; this memory can be read from, written to, and erased freely. When the power goes off, it loses its information.

  • Range mode

    See operating mode

  • Range signal

    See operating mode

  • Reference mark

    Irregular gradation pattern that generates a single signal peak, to provide an absolute reference for an incremental shaft encoder.

  • Reference pulse

    Square-wave signal generated by a reference mark, usually only one increment wide, to provide an absolute reference for an incremental shaft encoder.

  • Repeatability

    Degree of deviation for a point approached repeatedly under identical operating conditions.

  • RES

    Reset; see reset

  • Reset

    Resetting of a counter to its initial value

  • Reset modes
    • manual reset by pressing the reset key
    • electrical reset triggered by signal at reset input
    • automatic reset in preset counters after main preset value has been reached
    • interruption and re-activation of power supply (power-up reset)
  • Reset operation

    See operating mode

  • Reset to zero

    See reset

  • Resolution

    Number of increments per revolution (rotary) or distance between two increments (linear)

  • Resolver

    Inductive angular measuring device that generates two alternating voltages, with amplitude a function of the angle.

  • Reversal error

    Deviation in reading of a position when approached from different directions (hysteresis).

  • ROM

    “Read-Only-Memory” chip, whose memory can only be read out.

  • Rotational speed [n]

    Specification of revolutions per unit of time (1/min, 1/h or 1/sec)

  • RS 422

    Standardized interface for unidirectional point-to-point connections (for description refer to “Complementary”); voltage difference 7 V DC max.

  • RS 422/485

    Interfaces for serial data transfer with specifications to EIA standards.

  • RS 485

    Like RS 422, however as a bidirectional bus interface

  • Sampling frequency

    Number of signal periods per second. The maximum sampling frequency limits the speed of incremental measuring systems.

  • Scaling

    For programmable absolute shaft encoders the encoder actual value is multiplied by a scaling factor. Thus the resolution (increments per measuring distance or increments per revolution) is adaptable to the respective application.

  • SDO

    Service data object (in CAN networks)

  • Sense

    The Sense lines (Sense VCC and Sense GND) enable measurement of the factual encoder voltage without adulteration by voltage drop due to supply current and cable resistivity. With that e.g. supply voltage can automatically be adjusted.

  • Sensor supply

    Voltage supplied to feed a pulse generator by the counter.

  • Set mode

    See operating mode

  • Set value

    See preset value

  • Setting value

    The value to which a counter will be set. Two types of setting values exist: one-time and repeatable setting values.

    • One-time: The count is set to a specific value. This value is not stored and cannot be recalled.
    • Repeatable: The counter is set to a specific value (e.g. preset value). This value can be recalled at all times.
  • Shock stability

    Hengstler counters are shock-tested according to IEC 68 Section 2-27
    Test example:
    impulsive shocks to test object from 6 directions with an acceleration of 500 m/s2 and a duration of 6 ms per direction each.

  • Sincrona

    Una comunicazione sincrona avviene in tempo reale.


    Il Commercio elettronico in Italia: analisi e prospettive, 2000

  • Spark quenching

    For electromechanical counters

    • with diodes For DC counters and counting rates of up to 10 Hz on counter coils and resetting solenoids. The diode used should withstand a peak inverse voltage of approx. 5x rated voltage.
    • with RC combinations For DC counters and counting rates of > 10 Hz; for AC counters if the counter is triggered with sensitive contacts.
  • SSI

    Synchronous-serial Interface; standardized interface for serial data transfer

  • Static behavior

    The counter functions are carried out as long as the signal is present.

  • Teach in

    With this function, the count is stored as a preset value by pressing a button. Entering the preset value via keyboard is therefore not necessary, or is possible optionally.

  • Time counter

    Registers the operating time of machines, devices, etc. Preset time counters are also available for tasks involving control functions.

  • Torque [M]

    Moment of a force M=F*L [Nm, Ncm, Nmm]

  • Totalizer

    Total sum counter

  • Totalizing counter

    A counter which only adds up received pulses, but has no control functions.

  • TPE

    Thermo-plastic polyester elastomer; plastic coating of device cable

  • Trail

    See trailing signal

  • Trailing signal

    A bistable, freely variable range signal which “trails along” when the main preselection is changed.

  • Transmission ratio

    In mechanical counters, the first number indicates the rotation of the counter shaft; the second number shows the count in the display as it changes. Example: with a transmission ratio of 1:10, the display jumps by 10 per revolution of the counter shaft.

  • Tristate

    Control input; switches the outputs either to active or to high impedance.

  • Two’s complement

    Number format for the representation of negative numbers; range of values at n bit: -(2n-1) … 0… (2n-1-1)

  • UL approval

    US approval (Underwriters Laboratories Inc.)

  • Up/down

    Counter advance sense (adding or subtracting count)

  • Value retention

    Preservation of the “counted and preset values” in case of power failure.

  • Virtual Warehouse

    The term Virtual Warehouse has been coined from Dr. Marino Vincenzo, general executive manager UNITEC (sees Dictionary of the published Digital Economy from the Sole2ore).